How To Start Growing Cashew In Nigeria 2022 [Beginners Guide]

In recent years, demand for Cashew nuts has risen as their natural uses were discovered. Cashew cultivation has become increasingly popular among farmers in recent years because of the high demand for its nut for consumption and the juice it produces for fresh fruit juice.

Starting a cashew farm requires determining the size of your plantation, drawing a business strategy, purchasing lands, and cultivating the land.

If you’re interested in starting a cashew farming business in Africa, we’d like to show you how.

How To Start Growing Cashew In Nigeria- Step By Step Guide

To start cashew farming in Nigeria, here is the step-by-step guide to follow;

Step 1: Secure Starting Capital

If you plan on starting a cashew plantation, you’ll need money to acquire and prepare land, purchase and prepare planting materials, and carry out any other necessary tasks. Before deciding to develop a cashew plantation, it is essential that a thorough examination of the venture is carried out to identify the financial impact.

Read Also: How To Start Cocoa Farming In Nigeria

Step 2: Check The Soil Quality

There is a prevalent belief that cashews require very little soil and can adapt to a wide range of soil conditions without losing yield. However, developing a cashew plantation on sandy loam with deep and well-drained sandy soils would certainly boost its productivity.

Cashew prefers red sandy loam, lateritic soils, and coastal sands with a slightly acidic pH. Because cashew is highly susceptible to nutrient deficiencies, poor drainage, and soil pH, soil fertility restoration and maintenance can be used (above 8.0)

Step 3: Land preparation

Preparation costs may vary based on terrain, but they should be taken into account and completed as soon as possible, ideally before the rainy season when cashews are planted. This will help assure a successful harvest.

Step 4: Layout and Planting

Trees are often spaced 7 to 9 meters apart when planted in a square system, whereas those on sloppy land are typically spaced in a triangle system. There are two recommended planting spacings: 8m x 8m (156 plants/ha) and 8m x 7.5m (177 plants/ha).

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Additionally, a high-density planting approach of 4m 4m (625 plants/ha) with periodic thinning out of the plants is recommended to permit a higher return rate during the initial years.

In order to determine if fresh seeds are viable, you can test their capacity to sink in water, but you can also grow cashews in a nursery or start them as seedlings.

In addition, procedures like grafting and layering can be employed to propagate plants in the ground. During the rainy season, planting should be timed to coincide with other cultural practices like as mulching, fertilizer application, reseeding, irrigation, and insect and weed control.

Propagation Via Seedlings

A significant percentage of hermaphrodite blooms should be present in the panicles of the mother trees chosen for propagation. It is recommended that the trees produce medium-sized and heavy nuts (5-8 g/nut), with an annual production of 15 kg and an average of 8 nuts per panicle.

Cultivating Seedlings

Raising seedlings in polythene bags during May is a good idea. To speed up germination, soak seed nuts in water for 18 to 24 hours. Submerge the pre-soaked seed nuts in 2-3 cm of garden soil in polythene bags, stem end up. Seven to ten days are required for the germination of seeds.

Nuts And Seeds For Your Selection

During the peak harvest time of February-March, fresh seed nuts should be harvested and sun-dried for two to three days.

Select medium-sized nuts of 7-9 grams to ensure uniform and strong seedling growth.

Carbaryl (5g/Kg of seeds) should be applied to the sun-dried, graded seeds prior to storage in gunny bags or polythene bags.

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Planting Mixture Preparation

Add 10g of rock phosphate per 2kg of the potting mixture to the red soil combination for high rain regions and 1 part red soil, 1 part sand, and 1 part compost to the potting mixture for low rainfall areas.

Germination And Distribution Of Seeds

There should be at least 12-24 hours of soak time on the seed nuts before planting. Soil should be wet and loosened in the polythene bag before sowing. Sow the seeds on a shallow bed of soil, no deeper than 2.5 cm.

Within 15 to 20 days of seeding, the seed nuts will normally germinate. In the early stages of germination, rice straw can be used to cover the seedbed and give some shade.

750 g of N, 325 g P2O5, and 750 g K2O should be applied to each cashew plant. After the first year, use one-fifth of the recommended dosage, and then two-fifths of the recommended dosage during the second year.

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In the early phases of growth, pineapple is the most profitable inter-crop in cashew plantations.

As a general rule of thumb, poor soils should be divided into two sections: one section that is 7 feet wide by 7 feet long, and the other that is 10 feet wide by 10 feet long.

Two months following fertilization, the fruits will be available for picking.

Step 5: Harvesting

Cashews mature about three months after flowering, in January or February. The fruit and nut of the cashew tree are separated. The fruit can either be eaten fresh or dried, depending on one’s preference. Juice can be made from canned or squeezed fruit.

Nuts are sun-dried for three to four days, then stored and ready for shipment.

Products From The Cashew Tree

Cashew apple or a fruit eat it fresh or preserve it to use as a raw material for the production of juices, jams, and other beverages

Cashew Wine

This is quite well-liked throughout Asia.

Cashew Nut

Cashew nuts can be salted or roasted after they are harvested from the tree.

Peanuts, cashews An important raw ingredient used in the production of friction powder in the automobile industry, acid-resistant paints, insecticide, and fungicidal products is Shell Liquid “CNSL.”

Cashew Nut Preservation And Storage

Sundry for 3-4 days on a flat surface once the nuts are collected; avoid using a metallic surface when drying. Make sure the nuts are laid out properly to achieve even drying.

After drying, the moisture content cannot exceed 8%. Jute bags secured with duct tape can be used to keep the dry nuts. To prevent moisture absorption from the floor, place the jute bags on wood pallets.

Cashew Season In Nigeria

From February to the end of the rainy season in Nigeria, cashews are a typical tropical fruit-sensitive tree crop. Its fruits are gathered at this time of year for processing and eating. The nuts are usually either raw or treated before being sold or shipped when they are fresh.

The Cashew Producing States In Nigeria

Despite the fact that cashew trees may be found virtually anywhere in Nigeria, small-scale farmers in the southern and middle belt parts of the country are the primary cultivators. Among Nigeria’s most important cashew tree cultivars are, Imo, Enugu, Abia, Ebonyi, Anambra, and Cross River States in the Eastern part of Nigeria; Osun, Oyo, Ondo, Ekiti, and Ogun States in the western part as well as Kogi, Kwara, Nasarawa, Benue, Taraba, Niger and Abuja in the middle belt and also Sokoto and kebbi state in the Northwest part of the country.

Cashew Nut Market In Nigeria

Cashew nut production in Nigeria was estimated at 0.97 million metric tons in the FAO 2015 report, indicating that the worldwide cashew nut market is quite significant.

One of the most important economic drivers in the country, particularly in terms of GDP, has been cashew goods (fruit and nuts) (GDP). Because the National Cashew Association of Nigeria (formerly known as the Cashew Association of Nigeria (CASHTAN), which has determined that cashew is the second-best cash crop in Nigeria after cocoa, influenced this decision.

Any potential investor can take advantage of the value chain in cashew cultivation because Nigeria has not been able to meet the global demand for its products from nations such as Indonesia and the United States, as well as the Middle East.

Cashew Farming In Nigeria Pdf

Here is a complete Pdf guide on Cashew production in Nigeria.

Varieties Of Cashew In Nigeria

Brazilian cashews, Chinese cashews, and Indian cashews are the three most common types. Nigeria is the primary producer of Brazilian cashew.

How To Start A Cashew Farm

Starting a cashew farm requires determining the size of your plantation, drawing a business strategy, purchasing lands, and cultivating the land.

Cashew Value Chain In Nigeria

Cashew nut production in Nigeria was estimated at 0.97 million metric tons in the FAO 2015 report, indicating that the worldwide cashew nut market is quite significant.

One of the most important economic drivers in the country, particularly in terms of GDP, has been cashew goods (fruit and nuts) (GDP). Because the National Cashew Association of Nigeria (formerly known as the Cashew Association of Nigeria (CASHTAN), which has determined that cashew is the second-best cash crop in Nigeria after cocoa, influenced this decision.

Any potential investor can take advantage of the value chain in cashew cultivation because Nigeria has not been able to meet the global demand for its products from nations such as Indonesia and the United States, as well as the Middle East.

Cashew Yield Per Hectare

An acre of cashew plantation may yield 1,300 kilos of nuts per year, with each tree producing between 18 and 23 kilograms of nuts each year.

Cashew Plantation Per Acre

An acre of cashew plantation may yield 1,300 kilos of nuts per year, with each tree producing between 18 and 23 kilograms of nuts each year.

Highest Cashew Producing State In Nigeria

Approximately 100 metric tonnes of cashew nuts are shipped from the state of Kogi each year, making it Nigeria’s top cashew-producing state.

Cashew Nut Processing In Nigeria

Valency International’s cashew processing plant in Lagos, Nigeria, was inaugurated in 2014 and produces all classes of high-quality cashew kernels with an installed capacity of 40 MT/day.

Nigerian cashew nuts can be procured directly from bush producers, processed into the finest cashew kernels, and packaged for international and domestic markets thanks to Valency International’s well-established sourcing and warehousing facilities across the country. Valency International can provide single-origin cargo processing and cargo source tracing down to the village level.

All of Ogomboso’s best RCN is now being processed by Valency International.

Cashew kernels are subjected to stringent quality control, including the Critical Control Points (CCP) system. Strict hygienic conditions are strictly enforced during the processing of nuts, and the period taken from steaming RCN to packaging and final grading of completed products is strictly monitored for fewer than 12 days. Before vacuum packaging in 25/50 lb Flexi packing infused with CO2+nitrogen gases, the goods are always fumigated.

The factory employs 450+ African women, and Valency International has taken several steps to ensure that they have the finest possible working circumstances. Clean, sanitary food is provided in the canteen and a water treatment facility is in place to ensure that all employees have access to safe drinking water.

At our own full-service clinic within the factory, Valency International takes care of the health of its employees by conducting regular health checks on them. There is always a trained nurse on hand throughout working hours to guarantee that everyone gets medical assistance if necessary. Child labor will not be tolerated in Valency’s RCN and Cashew Kernel processing.

The cashew nut shell cake is used in place of coal in the boiler because Valency International is aware of its responsibilities to Mother Earth and has implemented waste-free, efficient energy management measures. Because of this, Nigeria may avoid paying expensive foreign exchange to buy coal, saving 7,000 metric tons (MT) each year.

How Profitable Is Cashew Farming In Nigeria?

The Cashew business is one of the most profitable farming businesses to start in Nigeria. A kilo of Cashew nut is sold for #450 in Nigeria.

How Long Does It Take For A Cashew Tree To Produce Cashews?

Keep in mind that it takes two to three years from planting to harvesting cashews if you wish to grow them.

Where Is Cashew Planted In Nigeria?

Despite the fact that cashew trees may be found virtually anywhere in Nigeria, small-scale farmers in the southern and middle belt parts of the country are the primary cultivators. Among Nigeria’s most important cashew tree cultivars are, Imo, Enugu, Abia, Ebonyi, Anambra, and Cross River States in the Eastern part of Nigeria; Osun, Oyo, Ondo, Ekiti, and Ogun States in the western part as well as Kogi, Kwara, Nasarawa, Benue, Taraba, Niger and Abuja in the middle belt and also Sokoto and kebbi state in the Northwest part of the country.

Where Do Cashew Trees Grow Best?

Cashew prefers red sandy loam, lateritic soils, and coastal sands with a slightly acidic pH. Because cashew is highly susceptible to nutrient deficiencies, poor drainage, and soil pH, soil fertility restoration and maintenance can be used (above 8.0)

How Do I Start A Cashew Farm?

Starting a cashew farm requires determining the size of your plantation, drawing a business strategy, purchasing lands, and cultivating the land.

How Many Cashews Can One Tree Produce?

At least you can harvest over 400 pieces of cashew can be harvested in one cashew tree.

What Is The Life Cycle Of Cashew?

In commercial plantations, cashew trees can grow to a height of 12 meters (39.4 feet) and have a useful life expectancy of 25 years before they need to be replaced.

Is Cashew Processing Profitable?

Yes, if you venture into cashew processing, it is a profitable business to start.

What Type Of Soil Do Cashews Grow In?

Cashew prefers red sandy loam, lateritic soils, and coastal sands with a slightly acidic pH. Because cashew is highly susceptible to nutrient deficiencies, poor drainage, and soil pH, soil fertility restoration and maintenance can be used (above 8.0)

How Do You Plant Cashew Tree?

Trees are often spaced 7 to 9 meters apart when planted in a square system, whereas those on sloppy land are typically spaced in a triangle system.

There are two recommended planting spacing: 8m x 8m (156 plants/ha) and 8m x 7.5m (177 plants/ha). Additionally, a high-density planting approach of 4m 4m (625 plants/ha) with periodic thinning out of the plants is recommended to permit a higher return rate during the initial years.

Why Are Cashews So Expensive?

A kilo of cashew cost 450 naira which is a huge take-home.

How Much Is A Tonne Of Cashew In Nigeria?

A ton of cashew costs an average of 450,000 to 500,000 naira.

Which Fertilizer Is Best For Cashew Tree?

A mature cashew tree requires 500 grams of nitrogen fertilizer (or 1.1 kilograms of urea), 125 grams of phosphoric acid (or 750 kilograms of Single Page 5 Super Phosphate), and 125 grams of potassium dioxide (or 200 kilograms of potash muriate).

How Many Cashews Grow Per Hectare?

You can grow at least 177 stands of cashew trees on a hectare of farmland in Nigeria.

How Often Can You Harvest Cashew?

You can harvest it as it keeps fruiting.

How Do You Market Cashew Nuts?

You can take your cashew to a merchant into produce buying like cocoa, palm kernel, and related agro products in your area.

How Many Cashews Grow On An Acre?

Averagely, you can grow 50 stands of cashew on an acre of farmland.

When Should I Fertilize My Cashews?

Feeding Cashew with fertilizer after the pre-monsoon (May-June) and after the post-monsoon (September-October) is recommended. As long as the soil is sufficiently moist after the monsoon season (September-October), this can be accomplished.

Conclusion

If you are planning to venture into cashew plantation or cultivation, we have given you all you need to know here in this content.

Author: Adewebs

David is a seasoned farmer with over 8years experience on the field and teaching. He has about 20 acres of Palm farm, 10acres of livestock farm where he spent most of his time tending and caring for his farm. He offer profffesional services and consultancy services to clients who are interested in venturing into farming.

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