[Beginners Guide] How To Formulate Poultry Feed In Kenya - Agrolearner.com
How To Formulate Poultry Feed In Kenya

[Beginners Guide] How To Formulate Poultry Feed In Kenya

Poultry farming has become an increasingly important aspect of agriculture in Kenya, with the demand for poultry products on the rise. One of the most critical factors that determine the growth, health, and productivity of poultry is the quality of their feed.

Feed formulation is a process that involves the selection of appropriate ingredients, determining the right proportions of these ingredients, and mixing them to produce a nutritionally balanced diet.

For poultry farmers in Kenya, formulating high-quality poultry feed is essential for the optimal growth and development of their birds, which ultimately translates to higher productivity and profitability.

This informative piece will provide a step-by-step guide on how to formulate poultry feed in Kenya to ensure that your birds receive the necessary nutrients for their optimal health and productivity.

How To Formulate Poultry Feed In Kenya

Formulating poultry feed in Kenya can be done easily with the right ingredients and a little bit of knowledge. The key is to choose the right type of feed for the poultry you are trying to raise, and then to mix the right amount of feed ingredients together.

Some of the most commonly used poultry feed ingredients in Kenya include maize, wheat, barley, fish meal, brewer‘s grain, and soya bean meal. For best results, consider consulting a professional poultry nutritionist to develop a complete and balanced diet for your poultry.

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To formulate poultry feed in Kenya, one needs to understand the nutrient requirements of the birds at different growth stages, identify locally available feed ingredients, and balance the feed to meet the birds’ nutritional needs while keeping costs low.

Here is the step by step guide on how to formulate poultry feed in Kenya.

Step 1: Determine the Nutritional Requirements of Your Birds

To create a nutritionally balanced feed for your birds, you need to understand their specific nutritional requirements. Different types of poultry have different nutritional needs, and their diet should be adjusted accordingly.

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For example, layers require a feed that is high in calcium to support the formation of eggshells. They also need a diet that is rich in protein, energy, and vitamins to support their high egg production. Broilers, on the other hand, require a diet that is high in protein to support their fast growth rate. They also need adequate energy, vitamins, and minerals to support their bone and muscle development.

Indigenous chickens, which are hardy birds that are well adapted to the local environment, have unique nutritional requirements. They require a diet that is high in energy, protein, vitamins, and minerals to support their growth, health, and productivity.

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To determine the specific nutritional requirements of your birds, you can consult with a poultry nutritionist or refer to available resources. Some of the essential nutrients that your poultry feed should contain include protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water.

Step 2: Choose the Ingredients

The ingredients used in your poultry feed will determine the nutritional composition of the final product.

Some of the commonly used ingredients in Kenya for poultry feed formulation include maize, wheat bran, soya bean meal, sunflower seed cake, fishmeal, and bone meal.

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Maize is a primary energy source in poultry feed, and it’s a rich source of carbohydrates. Wheat bran, on the other hand, is an excellent source of fiber and protein.

Soybean meal provides a high-quality protein source that contains all essential amino acids required by poultry.

Sunflower seed cake is rich in protein and fat, while fishmeal is a good source of protein, omega-3 fatty acids, and minerals.

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Bone meal is an excellent source of calcium and phosphorus, which are essential for bone development.

Other ingredients that can be included in poultry feed formulation include rice bran, cottonseed meal, sorghum, peas, and canola meal. These ingredients provide various essential nutrients required by poultry, such as energy, protein, minerals, and vitamins.

When choosing ingredients for your poultry feed, consider factors such as cost, availability, and quality. You can source ingredients from local suppliers or grow them on your farm.

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However, ensure that the ingredients are of high quality and free from contaminants such as mold, aflatoxins, and pesticides.

Step 3: Acquire Equipment

Once you have identified the ingredients and calculated the proportions for your poultry feed, the next step is to acquire the necessary equipment for mixing and storing the feed.

Some of the essential equipment for poultry feed formulation includes:

  1. Feed mixer: A feed mixer is an essential tool that helps to mix the various ingredients uniformly. It saves time and ensures that each bird receives the same nutrients.
  2. Weighing scale: A weighing scale is necessary to measure the correct quantities of each ingredient accurately.
  3. Storage containers: You need to store the finished feed in air-tight containers to maintain its quality and prevent contamination by pests.
  4. Grinding machine: A grinding machine is necessary for processing some of the feed ingredients, such as maize and wheat bran.

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When purchasing equipment for feed formulation, it’s crucial to consider factors such as the capacity, durability, and ease of use.

Additionally, ensure that the equipment is regularly cleaned and maintained to avoid contamination and ensure its longevity.

By acquiring the necessary equipment, you can make the feed formulation process more efficient, saving you time and effort while ensuring that your poultry receives the best quality feed for optimal growth and productivity.

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Step 4: Determine the Proportions of Each Ingredient

Once you have selected the ingredients, you need to determine the proportions of each ingredient. The proportions will depend on the nutritional requirements of your birds and the cost of the ingredients.

It’s essential to strike a balance between cost and nutritional value to ensure that the feed is both affordable and of high quality.

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Formula for 100kg of Broiler starter feed  (1-4 weeks)

Here’s the formula for 100kg of Broiler starter feed (1-4 weeks):


  • Maize meal: 56kg
  • Soybean meal: 34kg
  • Fish meal: 6kg
  • Wheat bran: 3kg
  • Limestone: 1.5kg
  • Oyster shell: 1.5kg
  • Premix: 2kg
  • Salt: 0.5kg

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  1. Weigh out 56kg of maize meal and 34kg of soybean meal and add them to a large mixing container.
  2. Add 6kg of fish meal, 3kg of wheat bran, 1.5kg of limestone, and 1.5kg of oyster shell to the mixing container.
  3. Add 2kg of premix (which should contain essential vitamins and minerals) and 0.5kg of salt to the mixing container.
  4. Mix all the ingredients thoroughly until they are evenly distributed.
  5. Store the feed in a cool, dry, and airtight container to prevent spoilage and contamination.

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Instructions For Producing 100 Kilograms Of Broiler Finisher Feed, Suitable For Birds Over 4 Weeks Old

Here’s the formula for 100kg of Broiler finisher feed (less than 4 weeks):


  • Maize meal: 58kg
  • Soybean meal: 30kg
  • Groundnut Cake: 2kg
  • Wheat bran: 6kg
  • Brewer dry grain: 12kg
  • Fish meal: 3kg
  • Limestone: 1.5kg
  • Lysine: 0.25kg
  • Maize offal: 4kg
  • Oyster shell: 1.5kg
  • Salt: 0.25kg
  • Premix: 0.5kg

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  1. Weigh out 58kg of maize meal and 30kg of soybean meal and add them to a large mixing container.
  2. Add 6kg of wheat bran, 3kg of fish meal, 1.5kg of limestone, and 1.5kg of oyster shell to the mixing container.
  3. Add 0.5kg of premix (which should contain essential vitamins and minerals) to the mixing container.
  4. Mix all the ingredients thoroughly until they are evenly distributed.
  5. Store the feed in a cool, dry, and airtight container to prevent spoilage and contamination.

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The Instruction for Producing 100 Kilograms Of Chick Feed For Layers Aged 1 To 4 Weeks

To produce a 100kg bag of layer chick mash, the ingredients listed below can be used:

  • 46kg of whole maize
  • 13kg of wheat bran,
  • 10kg of wheat pollard,
  • You can have 25 kilograms of either sunflower meal, linseed meal, beniseed meal, or groundnut cake.
  • 6 kg of fishmeal
  • 5 kg of lime
  • 70g of salt
  • 40g of premix

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To formulate the feed for 100kg of Layers’ Chick Mash (1-4 weeks), follow the steps below:

  1. Mix the whole maize, wheat bran, and wheat pollard in a clean container.
  2. Add the sunflower meal, linseed meal, beniseed meal or groundnut cake to the container and mix well.
  3. Add the fishmeal and mix thoroughly with the other ingredients.
  4. Add the lime, salt, premix, tryptophan, lysine, methionine, threonine, enzymes or growth enhancers, coccidiostat, and toxin binder to the container and mix thoroughly.
  5. Ensure that all the ingredients are well mixed to make a uniform feed.
  6. Store the feed in a clean, dry, and cool place to prevent contamination and spoilage.
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Formula For 100kg Of Layers’ Grower Mash (4-18weeks)

To formulate the feed for 100kg of Layers’ Grower (4-18 weeks), follow these steps:


  • 14.3kg of whole maize
  • 24.3kg of maize germ
  • 18.6kg of wheat pollard
  • 14.3kg of wheat bran
  • You can have 15.7 kilograms of either sunflower cake, groundnut cake, or beniseed meal.
  • 4.9kg of soya meal or soya cake
  • 2.9kg of lime
  • 1kg of bone meal
  • 4.3kg of fishmeal
  • 40g of salt
  • 5g of coccidiostat
  • 30g of Pre-mix
  • 5g of zinc bacitracin
  • 10g of toxin binder

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  1. Mix all the dry ingredients together in a clean container. Ensure that the mixture is uniform.
  2. Add water to the mixture gradually and mix until the mash is slightly wet.
  3. Allow the mash to stand for 10-15 minutes to allow the ingredients to blend together.
  4. Spread the mash out in a thin layer to air dry.
  5. After drying, sieve the mixture to obtain a uniform particle size.

Instruction for Producing Layers’ Feed In A Quantity Of 100kg For Birds That Are 18 Weeks Or Older


  • 59kg maize grains
  • 20kg soybean meal
  • 6kg groundnut cake
  • 4kg rice bran or wheat offals
  • 5kg bone meal
  • 5kg limestone
  • 200g methionine
  • 200g lysine
  • 200g vitamin and mineral premix
  • 200g salt
  • 100g toxin binder
  • 100g layers mix

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  1. Mix the maize grains, soybean meal, groundnut cake, and rice bran or wheat offals together in a large container.
  2. Add the bone meal and limestone and mix well.
  3. Mix in the methionine, lysine, vitamin and mineral premix, and salt.
  4. Finally, add the toxin binder and layers mix and mix everything thoroughly.

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Step 5: Mix the Ingredients

Once you have determined the proportions of each ingredient needed in your poultry feed, it’s time to mix them thoroughly. Proper mixing is essential to ensure that the feed is evenly distributed, and all the birds receive the necessary nutrients in every bite.

Here are some step-by-step instructions on how to mix your poultry feed:

Step 1: Prepare The Mixing Equipment

You can use a feed mixer, a shovel, or any other mixing equipment that can handle the volume of the ingredients. Ensure that the equipment is clean and free from any contaminants.

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Step 2: Measure The Ingredients

Measure the required amounts of each ingredient using a scale or any other measuring tool. Ensure that the measurements are accurate to avoid any nutrient imbalances.

Step 3: Add the Ingredients to The Mixing Equipment

Add the measured ingredients to the mixing equipment in the required proportions. Start with the larger ingredients such as maize and wheat bran and add the smaller ingredients such as fishmeal and bone meal last.

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Step 4: Mix the Ingredients Thoroughly

Turn on the mixing equipment and mix the ingredients for at least 5-10 minutes. If using a shovel, mix the ingredients in a large mixing container until they are evenly distributed.

Step 5: Check For Uniformity

After mixing, check for any visible clumps or uneven distribution of the ingredients. If you notice any, mix the feed again until it’s evenly distributed.

Step 6: Store The Feed

Once the feed is mixed and uniform, store it in a cool and dry place in airtight containers to prevent contamination and spoilage.

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Step 6: Store the Feed Properly

Proper storage of the feed is crucial to maintaining its quality and preventing contamination. Store the feed in a cool, dry place away from direct sunlight and moisture. Ensure that the storage area is well ventilated to prevent the growth of mold and other contaminants.

Cost Of Formulating Poultry Feed

As a rough estimate, the cost of formulating poultry feed may range from $500 to $1500 per ton, depending on the quality of the ingredients used and the level of customization required.

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However, it’s important to note that this is just an approximate cost, and actual prices may vary significantly depending on several factors, such as geographic location, market conditions, and transportation costs.

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Importance Of Producing Poultry Feed

Producing poultry feed is essential for the successful operation of any poultry farm. Poultry feed is a critical component in ensuring the health, growth, and productivity of birds.

The right feed provides birds with the necessary nutrients, vitamins, and minerals for optimal health and performance.

Producing high-quality poultry feed can help farmers save money and ensure that their birds are getting the best possible nutrition.

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Benefits Of Producing Poultry Feed

  1. Quality Control: Producing poultry feed allows farmers to control the quality of the feed and ensure that it meets the specific needs of their birds.
  2. Cost Savings: By producing their own feed, farmers can save money on feed costs, especially if they can source their own ingredients.
  3. Customization: Farmers can customize the feed to meet the specific requirements of their birds, such as age, breed, and production goals.
  4. Health and Productivity: A well-formulated poultry feed can promote the health and productivity of birds, leading to better growth rates, egg production, and meat quality.

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Challenges Of Producing Poultry Feed

  1. Ingredient Sourcing: Sourcing high-quality ingredients for poultry feed can be challenging, particularly for small-scale farmers.
  2. Formulation Expertise: Formulating a balanced and nutritionally complete poultry feed requires specialized knowledge and expertise.
  3. Cost of Equipment: The cost of purchasing and maintaining equipment for producing poultry feed can be significant.
  4. Quality Control: Ensuring the quality and consistency of the feed can be a challenge, particularly if farmers lack the necessary tools and resources.

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Best Practices Of Formulating Poultry Feed

  1. Determine the Nutritional Requirements: Understand the nutritional needs of your birds based on their age, breed, and production goals.
  2. Select High-Quality Ingredients: Source high-quality ingredients, such as grains, protein sources, and supplements.
  3. Balance the Nutrients: Formulate the feed to provide the correct balance of protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, and minerals.
  4. Monitor and Adjust: Continuously monitor the feed and adjust the formulation as necessary to ensure optimal nutrition and performance.

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Where To Sell Poultry Feed

  1. Direct to Farmers: Many poultry farmers prefer to purchase feed directly from local producers.
  2. Feed Stores: Feed stores often sell a variety of poultry feeds and may be interested in carrying locally produced feeds.
  3. Online Marketplaces: Online marketplaces, such as Amazon or eBay, can be an excellent way to reach a wider audience.
  4. Farmers Markets: Farmers markets can be an effective way to sell locally produced poultry feed directly to consumers.

Poultry Feed Formulation PDF

Poultry feed formulation is a complex process that involves calculating the exact combination of ingredients to provide balanced and nutritious feed for chickens.

A poultry feed formulation PDF can be a useful resource for farmers who want to learn more about this process.

This document typically contains information about the different types of ingredients used in poultry feed, the nutritional requirements of chickens, and the methods used to calculate the appropriate ratios of different ingredients.

Poultry Feed Formulation Manual Pdf Kenya

For farmers in Kenya, a poultry feed formulation manual in PDF format can be a valuable resource.

This type of document provides specific information about the local feed ingredients available in Kenya, as well as the nutritional requirements of different types of poultry commonly raised in the country.

A manual like this can help farmers to create their own cost-effective, nutritionally-balanced feed formulations that meet the needs of their flocks.

Making Own Poultry Feed PDF

Making your own poultry feed can be a cost-effective way to ensure that your chickens are getting the nutrients they need to stay healthy and productive.

A “making your own poultry feed” PDF can be a helpful guide for farmers who want to take this approach.

This type of document typically includes information about the different types of ingredients that can be used in poultry feed, as well as tips for calculating the appropriate ratios of each ingredient to create a balanced feed.

Poultry Feed Formulation Calculation

Poultry feed formulation calculation is a critical aspect of creating high-quality feed for chickens. This process involves determining the appropriate ratios of different ingredients to meet the nutritional needs of the birds.

Factors that may influence the formulation calculation include the age, weight, and breed of the chickens, as well as the type of production (such as egg-laying or meat production).

How To Make Chicken Feed For Layers

Making chicken feed for layers involves creating a feed formulation that meets the specific nutritional needs of hens that are laying eggs.

This may include a higher level of protein and other nutrients that are essential for egg production.

To make chicken feed for layers, farmers may need to use specific ingredients like soybean meal, fish meal, and calcium carbonate, as well as supplements like vitamins and minerals.

Handbook Of Poultry Farming And Feed Formulations PDF

A handbook of poultry farming and feed formulations in PDF format can be a comprehensive resource for farmers who want to learn more about raising chickens and creating their own feed.

This type of document typically includes information about all aspects of poultry farming, from breed selection and housing to nutrition and health.

A feed formulations section may provide guidance on calculating the appropriate ratios of different ingredients to create balanced feed for different types of chickens.

Low Cost Broiler Feed Formulation

Broiler feed formulation can be a costly process, but there are ways to create nutritious feed for chickens without breaking the bank.

A low cost broiler feed formulation may involve using locally-sourced ingredients, like maize and soybean meal, and supplementing with other nutrients like vitamins and minerals.

Farmers may also consider alternative protein sources like insects or algae, which can be a more sustainable and cost-effective option.


Formulating poultry feed in Kenya is a simple but crucial process that requires careful consideration of the nutritional requirements of your birds, the selection of high-quality ingredients, proper mixing, and storage. By following these steps, you can produce high-quality feed that will support the growth and development of your birds and ensure their optimal performance.

Author: David

David is a Kenyan farmer from the rural village of Nairobi. Growing up, he was surrounded by the beauty of the Kenyan countryside, which sparked his passion for farming. After completing his education, he decided to pursue a career in agriculture and has since dedicated his life to providing food for his local community. David is an experienced farmer and is experienced in a range of agricultural practices, including crop rotation, animal husbandry and soil management. He is passionate about promoting sustainable agriculture and is actively working to reduce food insecurity in his community.

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