Farming In Mauritania– Agriculture is an important profession to man because it involves food production/ that is why most countries around the world practice this enterprise to make food available for their population and then export excess production to other nations as a source of income.
Mauritania is an African country that practices agriculture for food production and economic activities. However, due to so many militating factors, the enterprise is poorly practiced in the country.
Nonetheless, if you intend to start farming in Mauritania, you have to source funds, get farmland, clear the land, prepare the farmland, purchase crop seedlings, plant the crops, mulching practice, irrigation, weed, and pest control, fertilization, and harvest.
How To Start Farming In Mauritania Step By Step
Agriculture in Mauritania is divided into two, crop planting and animal husbandry. The latter is predominantly practiced because of the scarcity of land to practice crop planting. however, we will show you the steps you can take to start both types of agriculture in the country.
How to Start Crop Farming
If you are residing where there is arable land in Mauritania, you can start farming by following the simple steps below.
Step 1: Source for Fund
Agricultural practice requires funding. If you already have your budget, you can skip this phase, if you don’t you need to source for means of funding.
Apply for government grants for farmers or businesses. You can as well source for a loan from a bank or financial agency if your business plan is convincing, you can be given. However, a loan is not always the best option for a start-up business.
You leverage from family and friends who are buoyant to support you with finance to begin your business.
Read Also: How To Grow Cucumber In Pots & Container
Step 2: Get a Farmland
After you seek out the issue of finance raising, you should acquire farmland where your crops will be planted.
Ensure you consider factors such as climate conditions, soil properties, and water proximity before selecting farmland.
Also, the size of farmland depends on the type of crop you intend to farm. For starters, you can begin with an acre of land.
Step 3: Clear the Farmland
The just acquired farmland should be cleared of every existing plant deemed unwanted either employing manual laborers or using mechanized tools.
After completely clearing the farmland, you should clean the farmland by burning the uprooted plants and ensuring they are disposed of the farmland.
Step 4: Prepare the Farmland
You have to prepare the farmland so that it can be appropriate for farming. The necessary steps to follow are:
Spray the Farmland
The farmland should be sprayed after clearing the field. This step is often neglected by most farmers however, it is imperative because weeds and other unwanted plants will not grow within a short period. Also, pests and other insects will not be found anywhere near the field.
Ensure you plow the land to further boost soil fertility.
Seeds are not planted just anywhere or anyhow on the farmland. Rather, Seed beds should be made on the farmland where the crop seedlings will be planted.
Note, during this stage, you should make irrigation channels where water will flow in and out of the farm.
Step 5: Purchase Crop Seedlings
You have to visit a crop breeder, farmer, and or agriculture ministry to purchase quality seeds that will be planted on your farm.
Step 6: Plant the Crops
Having prepared your farmland, you have to sow the seeds on the prepared farm beds. There are different methods through which you can plant your seeds, either planting the seed directly or transplanting the already sprouted plant.
Note, before you plant your seed, the soil has to be moist meaning you have to water the farm bed. also, the best period to plant your seeds is early in the morning or late evening.
Step 7: Mulching Practice
After planting, considering the weather variation of Mauritania, you have to protect the farm bed from losing moisture as well as the plants from excess sunlight.
Mulching can be done by placing organic or inorganic materials on the farm beds. Items such as dried grass, weeds, or any other unwanted plants can be used; polythene materials can also be used.
Step 8: Irrigation
Plants need water throughout their germination stage. If possible, you can water the farm yourself or employ the best method of creating an irrigation system through which water is pumped directly to the farm through the irrigation channels.
Step 9: Weed and Pest Control
Don’t just plant your seeds and later on sit back. You have to pay close attention to your farm observing and removing any unwanted plants growing in between plants competing for space and nutrients.
Spraying herbicides and pesticides will go a long way to help kill weeds and put insects away from the plants.
Step 10: Fertilizer Application
You have to apply fertilizer on the farm to supplement and replenish soil nutrients that will aid the growth of plants. This process is to be done at intervals using the right fertilizer and magnitude of application.
Step 11: Harvest
The final stage on the farm is to collect matured farm produce by cutting or plucking it from the plant stem. The ripped crops should be gathered and stored thereafter other activities such as sorting, cleaning, threshing and so on can be done to prepare for market sales.
How to Start Animal Farming
If you intend to start animal farming in Mauritania it is not a bad idea because it is highly viable in the country. The steps below should be adhered to.
Step 1: Get a Farmland
Check out ideal farmland that is suitable for animal farming in the country. Ensure the farm site is conducive to meeting the required weather condition, access to clean water, soil components, and other considerable factors.
The size of the farmland depends on the number of animals that will be housed on the farm.
Step 2: Prepare the Land
If the land you acquired has never been built upon and still has shrubs, grass, or trees, you have to clear the land and make it appropriate for animal farming.
Should the land be used land with or without building on it, you can clear the minor shrubs and grasses, as well as remove dirt and debris.
Step 3: Disinfect the Land
The land should be disinfected using pesticides to rid the land of insects and pests that are harmful to the livestock that will be raised on the farm.
Step 4: Get an Animal Home
An animal house is where the livestock will be housed and raised. The essence of animal houses is to shelter them and keep them safe from predators. That is why you should fence the farm roundabout for optimum security.
There are different types for different livestock. so, the farmhouse you obtain or construct depends on the type of animal as well as the number to be raised on the farm.
Step 5: Prepare the Animal House
There are essentials needed to be in an animal house. Some of the items include light bulbs, parasite control, neutering, food bowl (and food!), and water bowls.
Step 5: Get your Animal’s Breed
There are a variety of animal breeds in the market that you can purchase. You can go for purebred or non-purebred animals depending on your choice. Nonetheless, you should go for animal breeds that are not susceptible to disease and can withstand harsh weather conditions.
In addition, for bird animals, you can get their eggs and hatch, or you can buy day-olds and raise them. For other livestock animals, you can buy the adult to reproduce or the kid and raise them to maturity.
Step 5: Stock your Animal
The animal breeds should be stocked on the farm concerning spacing because overcrowding the animals can be hazardous.
Step 6: Animal Care and Management
You have to manage and take care of the livestock to avoid pest infestation and disease so they won’t be sick. The activities you need to perform are:
Feed your livestock daily with the appropriate feed. This should be done at an interval to help them grow. Failure to feed the animals appropriately will cause malnourishment and ultimately the animals become sick and may eventually die.
Likewise, ensure the livestock are given sufficient water to aid digestion and keep them healthy.
Animal treatment is important as well. You have to administer their treatment as prescribed by the veterinarian. Treatment administration will help boost the animals’ immunity to disease resistance.
Regular cleaning of the animal house is important for their hygiene. You have to clean after them daily removing dirt, debris, leftover food, dung, and even dead animal to avoid disease breaking out on the farm.
Step 7: Harvest
The matured animals should be separated, gathered, sorted and cleaned to be prepared for marketing. The matured animal or its products are sold to consumers or sellers.
What Crops Grow in Mauritania?
The major crops grown in Mauritania are rice, millet, and sorghum. These crops account for about 70% of crops grown in the country.
Challenges of Agriculture in Mauritania
Agricultural practice in Mauritania faces a lot of challenges which are primarily climate and environmental-related. Drought, unexpected weather, increase desert area, and difficulty to access water for irrigation purposes are the chief challenges faced during farming in the country.
However, due to government intervention and the introduction of technological equipment, the venture has improved drastically making farming in the country a profitable venture.
This guide contains all the information you need on how to start farming in Mauritania. As you have read, it is evident that starting a farm in this country is not as difficult as it might seem. All you need to do is to follow the instruction from beginning to end.