Agriculture is a major occupation in Ghana, and rice farming is one of the best farming businesses in the country.
The cereal plant is one of the most consumed and highly demanded food, making rice farming a profitable business that you can do in the gold coast country.
Suppose you want to venture into rice farming in Ghana but don’t know what to do. In that case, you are reading the right material where we have explicitly discussed the steps you need to take from beginning to the end.
Suppose you are interested in going into rice farming in Ghana here is what you need to get started you must select the farm site, prepare the land, purchase rice seedlings, plant the seeds, fertilizer application, weed/pest, and disease control, and more.
Ensure you read through from beginning to the end for more information on how to start rice farming in Ghana.
How to Start Rice Farming in Ghana Step By Step Guide
Because local rice production is not meeting the high demand in Ghana, many persons in the country have decided to venture into the business. However, not everyone knows how to start a rice farm business.
Read Also: How To Grow Beans In Ghana [Beginners Guide]
Rice farming in Ghana is the same as in other countries, except for a few differences. The step-by-step approach is discussed below.
Step 1: Select the Farm Site
Farm selection is an important process in rice farming. The quality of land you select will determine the yield level and germination quality. That is why you should take this process very seriously.
It would help if you considered the following during your site selection outing.
It would help to look for rice farming farmland before the planting season starts.
Do not select a land where rice was planted in the previous season.
The farmland should be low-land with a medium depth of water, i.e., up to 50 cm.
The area selected should not be experiencing heavy floods.
Do not select farmland with clay soils because it is not suitable for rice farming because of prolonged capacity water retention.
Note that you can acquire farmland by purchasing or renting. However, it is best to buy the farm if you have the money.
Step 2: Prepare the Land
Land preparation is a significant process in rice farming. The process is very tasking and time-consuming if you will be doing it manually. Still, with machines such as tractors, plows, harrows, etc., you will be done with the process within a few days.
There are several stages in land preparation. They are:
Farmland must be cleared
Whether it is a fallowed land or a newly deforested land, you must clear the farmland to prepare it for farming.
You must clear the farmland by cutting unwanted plants and removing dirt and debris from the field to make it neat and fit for farming. Ensure you pile up the wastes and dispose of them.
Plow the Land
The next phase is to plow the land to dig up, mix, and overturn the soil. This will loosen the soil, which helps air circulation and provide fresh nutrients to the soil surface, among other benefits.
Harrow the Land
Usually, after you are done plowing, you must harrow the land so that chumped soils can be broken into smaller particles and smooth out the soil surface.
This activity will allow the soil to absorb nutrients and water easily and the root to be well fixed in the soil.
Leveling of Farmland
It would help if you leveled the farmland to ease bumps and fill holes so the land will be flattened to allow even distribution of water and nutrients.
Step 3: Purchase Rice Seedlings
The market is flooded with varieties of rice seedlings from which a farmer can choose. The International Agricultural Organization and the agriculture ministry are the best places to purchase quality rice seeds.
Choose genetically pure or hybrid seeds because they are free of pest infection, diseases, and weed seeds.
Step 4: Plant the Seeds
You can employ different methods to plant rice on your farmland. Not that it is best to plant rice only under irrigated conditions.
You can plant the rice seeds directly into the rice field by dibbing or broadcasting dry seeds.
Before the period you will begin to plant, make sure to expose the seeds to high temperatures for 1−2 days. Then, prime the seed by soaking it for 4−8 hours and re-drying before sowing. Note that seeds must be sown within 1−2 days after priming.
Ensure you have removed weeds until the beds and the soil are level before planting. Also, the best time to plant is between May to November.
Transplanting is transferring pre-germinated seeds from planting trays to farm beds. This method is effective and speeds up the germination process.
You must have planted the rice seeds in a nursery. After 15 to 40 days, when the seed must have germinated, you can pull the pre-germinated rice plants and transplant them into wet, leveled fields. This process can be done manually or through the use of the machine.
Step 5: Water the Rice Plants
As mentioned earlier, the best place to plant rice is in irrigated fields. The reason is that continuous watering helps ensure sufficient water. You must continue to water the field from planting up to 7−10 days before harvest.
Step 6: Fertilizer Application
Fertilizer application is generally an integral process in farming, and rice farming is no exemption. You should not ignore this process because it will help your rice plant germinate properly and control the growth of unwanted plants, pests, and diseases.
At every growth stage of the rice plant, specific fertilizer needs to be applied. It is best to discuss with an expert for more information.
Step 7: Weed/Pest and Disease control
Your rice plant or farm, in general, can be infested by pests and diseases, and weeds if not properly cared for. That is why you must be vigilant and visit the farm often to watch out for abnormalities.
Weeds can be removed by hand using simple farm tools or fumigation by spraying herbicides that will not endanger the rice plant and soil nutrients.
Also, pesticides should be sprayed to prevent or eradicate pests such as termites, armyworms, insects, nematodes, rodents, birds, and pathogens from causing damage to the plant.
Step 8: Harvest
Typically, it takes about 105 – 150 days for rice plants to germinate fully. Once the planted rice turns yellow/brown, it is mature and ready to be harvested.
The harvesting process can either be done manually or mechanically. The manual harvest process is done by cutting with a sickle or knife. In contrast, mechanized harvesting involves the use of machines such as harvesters.
Step 9: Post-Harvest
The process does not end at harvesting, but there are activities that are carried out after the entire farm has been harvested. After harvesting your rice grains, you have to prepare them and package them to be ready for sale.
So, you have to dry the grains in the sun to dry the moisture. Afterward, you need to take the grains or take them for milling to remove the shaft to separate it from the grain.
Once you are packaging your rice grains, you should take them to the marketplace, where they will be sold to the consumers.
How Do I Start A Rice Farm?
Rice farming is productive and because of its profitability, many Ghanaians are interested to venture into the enterprise. However, Rice farming can be daunting requiring time, energy, and financial commitment, but it is a profitable task. Many things go into rice farming. The process of farming rice has been discussed above.
To reiterate, the steps are selecting the farm site, preparing the land, clearing the farmland by plowing the land, harrowing land, and leveling the farmland.
You will have to purchase rice seedlings, plant the seeds by direct seeding or transplanting, water the rice plants, fertilizer application, weed/pest, disease control, and harvest.
How Many Bags of Rice do You Get per Acre in Ghana?
Suppose you intend to go into rice farming for business purposes. In that case, you must farm on a large area, especially in hectares. However, per acre of land, you will get between 20 to 30 bags per acre in Ghana.
How Long Does Rice Take to Grow?
Compared to some plants, the rice germination period is not too extensive. The growth period of rice from planting to the maturity stage of producing grains is approximately 120 days, regardless of the variety planted.
How much is a 50kg Bag of Rice in Ghana?
Rice is a common cereal in Ghana. It is highly consumed and prepared in different varieties. For this reason, many persons purchase farm products either wholesale or retail. In Ghana, a 50kg bag of rice costs 247.47 Ghana Cedis.
How many Bags of Rice can One Hectare Produce?
Rice yield can be very high, that is if the farmer puts into consideration and follow the necessary tips involved. Depending on the yield level, you can get within 50-80 bags of rice from one hectare.
This is much information that we can provide on how to start rice farming in Ghana. From our discourse, it is evident that the rice farm is a profitable venture in Ghana.
However, the country’s rice production is very low, not meeting the high demand and consumption. The process can be tasking and capital intensive. Still, suppose the steps in this informative piece follow from beginning to end. In that case, you will surely enjoy the benefits that come with it.