[Beginners Guide] How to Start Pig Farming Zambia - Agrolearner.com
How to Start Pig Farming Zambia

[Beginners Guide] How to Start Pig Farming Zambia

Pig farming is a lucrative business that has gained popularity in Zambia due to its potential for high returns on investment.

If you’re considering starting a pig farming business in Zambia, it’s important to know the basics of pig farming, including how to select and breed pigs, what types of feeds to use, and how to manage the health and hygiene of your pigs.

This article will provide you with a comprehensive guide on how to start pig farming in Zambia, from choosing a suitable location for your farm, to selecting the right breed of pigs and managing their daily care. By following these steps, you can set yourself up for success in the profitable world of pig farming.

How to Start Pig Farming Zambia Step By Step Guide

If you’re considering starting a pig farming business in Zambia, there are several key steps you need to take to ensure your success. From research and planning to selecting and selling mature pigs, here’s a step-by-step guide on how to get started with pig farming in Zambia.

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Step 1. Research and Planning

Before you begin your pig farming business, it’s essential to conduct thorough research and planning to ensure you’re well-prepared.

This includes identifying the market demand for pigs in your area, researching the costs of raising and caring for pigs, and developing a business plan that outlines your goals and strategies for success.

Step 2. Get Ideal Location

Once you’ve conducted your research and planning, the next step is to secure an ideal location for your pig farm.

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This includes finding a site that’s accessible and has adequate space for your pigs to graze and roam, as well as access to clean water and proper waste disposal facilities.

Step 3. Building the Farm Infrastructure

Once you have your location secured, you’ll need to build the necessary infrastructure for your pig farm.

This includes constructing pig houses or pens that provide shelter and protection for your pigs, as well as installing feeders, drinkers, and other equipment needed for their care.

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Step 4. Acquiring Pigs Breed

To start your pig farming business, you’ll need to source for pigs to stock your farm. You can do this by purchasing piglets from reputable breeders or farmers, or by purchasing breeding sows and boars to start your own breeding program.

Step 5. Stocking your Pigs in their House

Once you have your pigs, you’ll need to stock them in their houses or pens. It’s important to ensure that each pig has adequate space and access to feed and water, and that their housing is properly ventilated and kept clean.

Step 6. Caring for Pigs

Caring for pigs is an important aspect of pig farming in Zambia. To ensure the health and well-being of your pigs, you’ll need to provide them with proper care and attention. This includes the following:

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Regular Feeding And Watering

Pigs need to be fed regularly, typically twice a day. The feed should be a balanced diet that includes protein, carbohydrates, and essential vitamins and minerals.

You can purchase pre-made feed from a reputable supplier or make your own feed. It’s also important to ensure that your pigs have access to clean drinking water at all times.

Monitoring Their Health And Behavior

You should monitor your pigs’ health and behavior daily. This involves observing their activity levels, appetite, and general behavior.

Any signs of lethargy, decreased appetite, or unusual behavior should be noted and investigated further. Pigs can suffer from a range of illnesses, including respiratory infections, gastrointestinal disorders, and skin conditions.

Regular veterinary check-ups and vaccinations are also essential to keep your pigs healthy.

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Providing Necessary Medical Care And Treatments As Needed

If you notice any signs of illness or injury, it’s important to provide necessary medical care and treatments as soon as possible.

This may involve administering medication, providing wound care, or seeking veterinary service.

Step 7. Breeding your Pig

If you plan to breed your own pigs, you’ll need to carefully manage their breeding program to ensure the health and quality of their offspring. This includes selecting healthy and genetically diverse breeding sows and boars, managing their breeding cycles, and caring for newborn piglets. Here are the steps to follow:

Step 1: Select Healthy Breeding Sows And Boars

When choosing pigs for breeding, it’s important to select those that are healthy, disease-free, and free from genetic defects. Look for sows and boars with good body condition, healthy skin, and a good temperament.

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Step 2: Manage Breeding Cycles

Female pigs (sows) come into heat every 21 days, and this is the best time to breed them. You can either let the sow mate naturally with a boar or use artificial insemination. Monitor the sow’s behavior and body condition during breeding to ensure she’s healthy and mating successfully.

Step 3: Provide Proper Nutrition

Breeding sows and boars require a balanced and nutritious diet to ensure they’re healthy and can produce healthy offspring. Feed them a diet that’s high in protein, vitamins, and minerals, and ensure they have access to clean water at all times.

Step 4: Care For Newborn Piglets

When the sow gives birth, you’ll need to ensure that the piglets are healthy and receive proper care. This includes monitoring their weight gain, ensuring they have access to the sow’s milk, and providing them with a clean and warm environment.

Step 8. Selecting and Sales of Mature Pig

As your pigs mature, you’ll need to regularly assess their growth and health to determine the best time for selection and sale.

This includes monitoring their weight and body condition, and selecting pigs that meet the desired size and quality standards for your market.

Specie of Pigs Raised in Zambia

There are several species of pigs raised in Zambia, including Large White, Landrace, and Duroc. These species are commonly raised due to their adaptability to the local climate and their ability to produce high-quality meat.

Benefit of Starting a Pig Farm in Zambia

Here are some of the key benefits of starting a pig farm in Zambia:

High Demand for Pork

Zambia has a high demand for pork, which creates a ready market for pig farmers. Pork is a popular meat among Zambians, and with a growing population, the demand for pork is expected to continue rising.

This provides an excellent opportunity for pig farmers to meet the demand and generate substantial profits.

Low Start-up Costs

Starting a pig farm in Zambia does not require significant capital investment. The initial investment can be relatively low, and the farmer can expand gradually as the business grows. This makes it an ideal business venture for people with limited financial resources.

High Returns on Investment

Pig farming has a high return on investment compared to other agricultural ventures. Pigs have a short gestation period and reach maturity quickly, allowing farmers to recoup their investment within a short time.

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Furthermore, pigs produce high-quality meat and other products, such as skin and bones, which can be sold for additional profits.

Diversification of Income

Pig farming provides an opportunity for farmers to diversify their sources of income. Pigs are versatile animals that can produce various products, including meat, skins, and manure. Farmers can sell these products or use them for their consumption, reducing their expenses.

Job Creation

Pig farming can create employment opportunities for people in rural areas, where unemployment is high. The business requires a significant labor force, from the construction of pigsties to the daily feeding and care of the pigs.

Thus, starting a pig farm can contribute to job creation and improve the livelihoods of people in rural areas.

Cost of Starting a Pig Farm in Zambia

The cost of starting a pig farming business in Zambia can vary depending on several factors, such as the size of the farm, the cost of land and equipment, and the cost of purchasing and caring for pigs.

However, on average, it can cost between 20,000 to 50,000 Zambian kwacha (approximately 1,000 to 2,500 USD) to start a small-scale pig farming business in Zambia.

Projected Profit of Pig Farming

The projected profit of pig farming in Zambia can also vary depending on several factors, such as market demand, production costs, and selling price. However, with proper planning and management, pig farming in Zambia can be a profitable business venture.

For example, a small-scale pig farming operation with 50 pigs can generate an estimated profit of between 60,000 to 120,000 Zambian kwacha (approximately 3,000 to 6,000 USD) per year, while a larger-scale operation with 500 pigs can generate an estimated profit of up to 1,000,000 Zambian kwacha (approximately 50,000 USD) per year.

Common Diseases and Pests of Pig Farming

Pig farming is a popular agricultural activity that involves the breeding and rearing of domestic pigs for meat production.

However, like any other agricultural enterprise, pig farming is not immune to the occurrence of diseases and pest infestations, which can cause significant economic losses to pig farmers.

Here are some common diseases and pests of pig farming:

African Swine Fever (ASF)

ASF, which stands for African Swine Fever, is a viral illness that can be easily transmitted and impacts both domestic and wild swine populations.

It spreads through direct contact with infected pigs, contaminated feed, or objects, and can cause significant economic losses due to high mortality rates. The disease is prevalent in Africa, Europe, and Asia, and there is no effective treatment or vaccine for it.

Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD)

FMD is a viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals such as pigs, cattle, and sheep. It spreads through direct contact with infected animals, contaminated equipment or feed, and can cause fever, blisters, and lameness.

The disease is highly contagious and can lead to significant economic losses due to reduced productivity and trade restrictions.

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS)

PRRS is a viral disease that affects both reproductive and respiratory systems of pigs.

It spreads through direct contact with infected pigs, contaminated equipment or feed, and can cause reproductive failure, respiratory problems, and increased mortality rates.

The disease is prevalent in many countries and can lead to significant economic losses due to reduced productivity.

Swine Influenza

Swine influenza is a respiratory disease caused by influenza viruses that infect pigs. It spreads through direct contact with infected pigs or contaminated equipment, and can cause fever, cough, and reduced feed intake.

The disease can also affect humans who come into contact with infected pigs.

Parasitic Infestations

Pigs can be infested with various parasites such as lice, mites, and roundworms. These parasites can cause skin irritation, weight loss, and reduced productivity. Proper hygiene and regular deworming and treatment for parasites are essential to control their spread and minimize economic losses.

How Much Is Pig Sold In Zambia

The price of pigs in Zambia can vary depending on several factors, including the breed of pig, the age and weight of the pig, and the current market demand.

As of my knowledge cutoff in 2021, the average price of a live pig in Zambia was around ZMW 3,500 to 4,000 (approximately USD 193 to 221).

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However, it’s important to note that these prices can fluctuate over time and may vary depending on the location and market conditions.

Best Practices of Pig Farming In Zambia

Pig farming is a profitable agricultural venture in Zambia that has the potential to provide a stable source of income for farmers.

Here are some best practices to follow for successful pig farming in Zambia:

  1. Proper Housing: The pigs should be kept in a clean and dry environment, which is properly ventilated. The housing structure should be built in such a way that it protects the pigs from harsh weather conditions, and predators.
  2. Nutrition: The pigs should be given a balanced diet consisting of protein, vitamins, and minerals. A nutritionist can be consulted to create a diet plan that meets the pig’s nutritional requirements.
  3. Hygiene: Pigs should be kept clean and their housing area should be disinfected regularly to prevent the spread of diseases.
  4. Breeding: Proper breeding practices are essential for producing healthy piglets. It is important to select healthy and genetically superior breeding stock for successful breeding.
  5. Health Management: Regular veterinary checkups and vaccinations are essential to ensure that the pigs are healthy and free from diseases.

Challenges of Pig Farming In Zambia

Despite being a profitable venture, pig farming in Zambia faces various challenges, which include:

  1. Lack of Financing: The high cost of starting a pig farm makes it difficult for many farmers to enter the industry. Lack of financing options further exacerbates this problem.
  2. Limited Access to Markets: Many farmers have limited access to markets, which makes it difficult for them to sell their pigs at a fair price.
  3. Disease Outbreaks: Disease outbreaks can quickly spread through pig farms, causing significant losses for farmers.
  4. Lack of Knowledge: Many farmers lack knowledge on proper pig farming practices, which can result in low productivity and high mortality rates.

Where To Sell Pigs In Zambia

There are various markets and avenues for selling pigs in Zambia, including:

  1. Local Markets: Local markets are a common avenue for selling pigs in Zambia. Farmers can sell their pigs directly to consumers or through middlemen.
  2. Supermarkets: Some supermarkets in Zambia purchase pigs from farmers for their meat sections.
  3. Export: Some farmers may also choose to export their pigs to neighboring countries.
  4. Abattoirs: Farmers can also sell their pigs to abattoirs, which process the pigs and sell the meat to various markets.

Industries that Demand Pigs in Zambia

Zambia is a country in Southern Africa with a growing demand for pig products such as pork and bacon. The demand for pig products has led to an increase in the number of industries that require pigs as their raw materials.

Some of the industries that demand pigs in Zambia include meat processing companies, hotels, restaurants, and supermarkets.

Pig Farming For Beginners 3 Simple Ideas

Pig farming is a lucrative business venture that has gained popularity among farmers in Zambia. If you are a beginner in pig farming, here are three simple ideas that you can consider:

  1. Starting small: Start with a few pigs, and as you gain experience, you can increase the number of pigs.
  2. Feeding: Pigs require a balanced diet, including proteins, carbohydrates, and vitamins. You can feed them on a mixture of maize, soybean, and other feed supplements.
  3. Health Management: Pigs are susceptible to diseases, so you must ensure that they receive proper vaccination and medication.

How Much Does It Cost To Start A Pig Farm

The cost of starting a pig farm in Zambia will depend on various factors such as the location, the number of pigs, and the type of housing you want to construct.

Generally, starting a pig farm requires capital for buying land, construction of pig housing, purchasing piglets, and buying feeds. The cost of starting a pig farm can range from $5,000 to $20,000.

Pig Farming Requirements

Pig farming requires a suitable location, adequate housing, proper feeding, and health management.

Pigs are social animals, and they require enough space for free movement, access to water, and protection from predators.

You will also need to invest in proper feeding equipment and feed supplements to ensure that your pigs receive a balanced diet.

Health management is crucial in pig farming, and you must ensure that your pigs receive proper vaccination and medication.

Small Scale Pig Farming

Small-scale pig farming is an excellent way of generating income and ensuring food security for your family.

It involves rearing a small number of pigs for sale or personal consumption.

Small-scale pig farming requires less capital and can be done on a small piece of land.

However, it requires proper planning, feeding, and health management to ensure that the pigs grow healthy and productive.

How Profitable Is Pig Farming In Zambia

Pig farming is a profitable business venture in Zambia, with high demand for pig products such as pork and bacon.

However, the profitability of pig farming will depend on various factors such as the number of pigs, market demand, and the cost of production.

Proper planning, feeding, and health management can increase the profitability of pig farming in Zambia.

How Much Is Needed To Start Pig Farming

The amount of capital required to start pig farming in Zambia will depend on various factors such as the location, the number of pigs, and the type of housing.

Generally, starting a small-scale pig farm will require between $5,000 to $10,000, while a larger scale pig farm may require up to $20,000 or more.

It is essential to conduct proper research and planning before starting a pig farming venture to ensure its success.


Starting a pig farming business in Zambia requires careful planning, attention to detail, and a commitment to providing quality care for your pigs. By following these step-by-step guidelines, you can build a successful and profitable pig farming business in Zambia.

Author: David

David is a Kenyan farmer from the rural village of Nairobi. Growing up, he was surrounded by the beauty of the Kenyan countryside, which sparked his passion for farming. After completing his education, he decided to pursue a career in agriculture and has since dedicated his life to providing food for his local community. David is an experienced farmer and is experienced in a range of agricultural practices, including crop rotation, animal husbandry and soil management. He is passionate about promoting sustainable agriculture and is actively working to reduce food insecurity in his community.

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