Raising pigs is a lucrative agro venture however, it is not without some challenges, prominently the infestation of diseases.
There are several types of diseases that affect pigs however, we are more concerned about viral pig diseases which are a big problem for pig farmers, leading to reduced productivity and even death.
Some of the 10 common viral pig diseases include Foot and Mouth Disease, African Swine Fever, Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome, Porcine Circovirus, Swine Influenza, Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea, Porcine Parvovirus, Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus, Classical Swine Fever, and Porcine sapovirus.
Ensure you read on to get comprehensive detail about each disease including how you can treat them and as well prevent future occurrences.
10 Common Viral Pig Diseases And How To Treat
The 10 common viral pig diseases and how to treat them are outlined and discussed below.
#1. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS)
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is a highly contagious viral disease that affects pigs. It is one of the most devastating diseases that can cause huge losses to the pig industry.
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The causes of PRRS are traced back to the PRRS virus that is transmitted from infected pigs to healthy pigs through contact, air or feed.
The symptoms of PRRS in pigs are respiratory distress, fever, decreased appetite, and reproductive failure. Pregnant sows can abort their litters, or the pig may be weak and have poor growth.
The treatment of PRRS is a challenging task and requires a combination of drugs and herbal remedies. Drugs like interferons and antivirals are commonly used to treat PRRS.
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One example of an interferon is porcine interferon omega, which is available as an injection and is used to increase the pig’s immunity against the virus.
Another example is the antiviral drug, ribavirin, which is available as a tablet and is used to reduce the symptoms of PRRS.
Herbal remedies like ginseng, ginger, and garlic are also used to treat PRRS in pigs. These herbs have antiviral properties and help in boosting the pig’s immune system.
They can be given to the pigs in the form of feed additives or herbal supplements.
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Prevention is key to avoiding PRRS in pigs. This can be achieved by maintaining good biosecurity measures, avoiding contact with infected pigs, and ensuring that feed and water are free from contaminants. Regular monitoring of pig health and vaccination can also help prevent PRRS outbreaks.
To control PRRS, biosecurity measures like separating infected pigs from healthy pigs, disinfecting feed and water, and avoiding the introduction of infected pigs into the farm are essential.
The use of vaccines is also an effective way of controlling PRRS, as they help to build immunity against the virus.
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#2. Swine Influenza
A highly contagious respiratory disease of pigs caused by type A influenza virus.
Swine influenza is caused by a type of virus known as Influenza A virus. This virus is highly contagious and spreads quickly among pigs through respiratory droplets. The virus can also be transmitted through contaminated feed, water, and equipment.
The symptoms of swine influenza in pigs include high fever, coughing, sneezing, decreased appetite, and reduced activity levels. In severe cases, pigs may develop pneumonia and die.
There are two approaches to treating swine influenza in pigs: using drugs and using herbs. Some of the drugs used to treat swine influenza include Tamiflu and Relenza. These drugs can help reduce the symptoms of the disease, but they do not cure it.
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Herbs, on the other hand, have been used to treat swine influenza in pigs for centuries. Some of the herbs used include ginger, garlic, and turmeric. These herbs can help boost the pig’s immune system and reduce inflammation. The application method for these herbs is to mix them with the pig’s food or water.
Controlling the spread of swine influenza in pigs is crucial to prevent outbreaks. This can be done by implementing strict biosecurity measures, such as quarantining new pigs, washing hands before and after handling pigs, and using disinfectants on equipment and facilities.
Preventing the spread of swine influenza in pigs is important to maintain the health of the pigs and to prevent the loss of income due to outbreaks. Some of the preventive measures include regular vaccination, monitoring the health of the pigs, and implementing strict biosecurity measures.
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#3. Porcine Parvovirus
A viral disease that causes diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, and death in young pigs.
Porcine Parvovirus disease is caused by a highly contagious virus that infects pigs. This virus is known to be transmitted through the air, feed, water, and fomites.
Ingestion of contaminated fecal material and close contact between infected and susceptible pigs is the most common mode of transmission.
The symptoms of Porcine Parvovirus disease are usually seen in pigs that are 4-8 weeks old.
The most common symptoms are anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration. The infected pigs may also exhibit signs of lethargy and depression.
The symptoms may persist for several days or may even result in death.
There are several drugs available for the treatment of Porcine Parvovirus disease in pigs. One of the most commonly used drugs is Vitamin B complex, which helps to boost the immune system and promote recovery.
Antibiotics like Amoxicillin can also be used to treat the secondary infections that may occur.
Herbs like Echinacea and ginger can also be used to improve the pig’s health and promote recovery.
Control and Prevention
The best way to control and prevent Porcine Parvovirus disease is by maintaining strict hygiene measures. This includes regularly cleaning and sanitizing the pens, feeding troughs, and water sources.
It is also important to keep a close watch on the health of pigs and isolate any infected pigs immediately.
Piglets should also be vaccinated to provide protection against the virus. Additionally, it is important to practice good biosecurity measures to prevent the introduction of the virus into a herd.
#4. Porcine Circovirus
Porcine Circovirus disease (PCVAD) is a highly contagious viral disease that affects pigs and can result in significant economic losses in the pig industry.
PCVAD is caused by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), a virus that is highly contagious among pigs and spreads rapidly through contact with infected saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
The symptoms of PCVAD can vary from mild to severe, and can include anemia, weight loss, diarrhea, respiratory problems, and an enlarged spleen. In severe cases, the disease can also cause reproductive problems, such as infertility, and death.
Both drugs and herbs have been used in the treatment of PCVAD. Examples of drugs used in treatment include antiviral medications, such as valacyclovir and acyclovir, and antibiotics, such as tetracycline and penicillin.
Herbs, such as garlic and ginger, have been used to boost the pig’s immune system and help fight the virus.
The application method of drugs is usually oral or injectable, while herbs can be applied as supplements or added to the pig’s feed.
To prevent PCVAD, it is important to follow proper management practices, such as maintaining good hygiene, avoiding overcrowding, and avoiding contact with infected pigs.
It is also recommended to implement a vaccine program to help prevent the spread of the virus.
To control PCVAD, it is essential to maintain good biosecurity practices, such as keeping infected pigs separate from healthy pigs and disinfecting equipment and facilities. Vaccination can also be used to help control the spread of the virus.
#5. Foot-and-Mouth Disease
A highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals that causes fever, blisters on the tongue and feet, and lameness.
Foot-and-Mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and debilitating virus that affects domestic and wild pigs.
The virus is spread through direct and indirect contact with contaminated saliva, urine, or milk of infected animals, as well as through contaminated feed or water.
Foot-and-Mouth disease is caused by the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) that belongs to the family Picornaviridae. The virus is highly contagious and can be spread through air, water, feed, or direct contact with infected animals.
Pigs with FMD will show symptoms such as fever, lameness, oral blisters, and a reduced appetite. In severe cases, the animal may develop mouth and foot ulcers, making it difficult for them to eat or walk.
The conventional treatment for Foot-and-Mouth disease in pigs involves the use of antiviral drugs such as Acyclovir and Penciclovir. In addition, herbal remedies such as echinacea and ginger have been used to support the animal’s immune system and reduce inflammation.
Antiviral drugs are usually administered orally or intravenously, while herbal remedies are typically added to the animal’s feed or given as a supplement.
Prevention of Foot-and-Mouth disease in pigs includes regular vaccination, implementing biosecurity measures, and monitoring for signs of illness in animals.
In addition, avoiding the importation of infected pigs or contaminated feed and ensuring the proper disposal of waste from infected animals can help prevent the spread of the disease.
To control the spread of Foot-and-Mouth disease, it is important to isolate infected pigs and prevent their contact with healthy animals.
In addition, strict biosecurity measures should be implemented, including the use of disinfectants and proper disposal of infected animal waste.
#6. Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea
Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea disease in Pigs is a highly contagious viral disease affecting the digestive system of pigs. The disease was first reported in England in 1971 and has since spread to several countries worldwide.
The disease is caused by the Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea virus (PEDv), a type of coronavirus that spreads through contaminated feed, water, clothing, or equipment. The virus targets the cells of the small intestine, causing severe diarrhea and dehydration in affected pigs.
The symptoms of PEDv include severe diarrhea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and dehydration. Affected pigs often have a fever, and some may die within 24-48 hours of showing symptoms.
There is no specific antiviral drug for PEDv, and treatment is typically supportive, using fluids and electrolytes to prevent dehydration. Some farms have reported using herbal remedies, such as ginger and garlic, to help boost the pigs’ immune system and prevent the spread of the virus.
To prevent PEDv, it is important to maintain a biosecure environment, regularly monitor for symptoms and testing for the virus, and avoid the introduction of new pigs from infected farms. Vaccination is also an option for some farms, but it may not be effective in preventing all cases of the disease.
To control PEDv, it is important to practice good hygiene, such as washing hands and clothing between farms, disinfecting equipment, and avoiding the movement of pigs between farms. In addition, limiting the spread of contaminated feed and water sources can also help prevent the spread of the virus.
#7. African Swine Fever
African Swine Fever (ASF) is a highly contagious and deadly viral disease that affects pigs. The virus can spread quickly through a herd and has devastating impacts on the pig industry.
The virus that causes ASF is transmitted through contaminated feed, saliva, urine, and feces of infected pigs. It can also spread through ticks, which are common in many African countries.
The symptoms of ASF can vary greatly, depending on the strain of the virus. Common symptoms include high fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and loss of appetite. In severe cases, the virus can cause severe internal bleeding, leading to death within 2-10 days.
There is currently no cure for ASF, but drugs such as Tylosin, Lincomycin, and Oxytetracycline can help manage symptoms.
Additionally, herbal remedies such as ginger, garlic, and ginseng have been found to have some anti-viral properties. The method of application of these drugs and herbs can be through injections, feed additives, and oral administration.
Controlling ASF requires a combination of measures, including strict quarantine and monitoring of infected herds, culling of infected animals, and proper disposal of dead pigs.
It is also important to prevent the spread of the virus through contaminated feed and to maintain proper hygiene in pig facilities.
Preventing ASF is crucial to protect the health of pig herds and prevent economic losses. This can be achieved through regular vaccination, using hygienic feed, and maintaining strict quarantine measures for imported pigs.
In addition, controlling tick populations and monitoring for symptoms in pigs can help prevent the spread of the disease.
#8. Necrotic Enteritis
Necrotic Enteritis is a severe and contagious disease that affects pigs.
The disease is caused by Clostridium perfringens, a bacterium that produces toxins that damage the intestinal lining and cause severe inflammation.
The symptoms of necrotic enteritis include vomiting, diarrhea, dehydration, weight loss, abdominal pain, and death. In severe cases, the pig may become emaciated, with a noticeable loss of weight and muscle mass.
Treatment options for necrotic enteritis include both drugs and herbs. Antibiotics such as metronidazole and lincomycin can be administered to help reduce the bacterial load and prevent the spread of the disease.
Herbs such as ginger, turmeric, and licorice root can be used to help reduce inflammation and provide additional support to the digestive system.
The application method for both drugs and herbs will depend on the specific product used. For example, antibiotics can be administered orally or intravenously, while herbs can be given in the form of a tea or tincture.
Prevention of necrotic enteritis can be achieved through regular vaccination and good management practices. Regular monitoring and testing of pigs can help detect the disease early and allow for prompt treatment.
More so, implementing biosecurity measures, such as isolating new pigs and preventing contact with infected pigs, can help reduce the spread of the disease.
Control measures for necrotic enteritis include maintaining good hygiene practices, such as regular cleaning of the pig pens and feeders. Providing a balanced and nutritious diet can also help reduce the risk of infection.
#9. Classical Swine Fever
Classical Swine Fever (CSF) is a highly contagious and severe viral disease of pigs. This disease is also known as hog cholera or pig plague. This disease can cause major economic losses to the pig industry, due to death and reduced production of affected pigs.
CSF is caused by the classical swine fever virus (CSFV), which belongs to the family Flaviviridae. The virus can spread from infected pigs to healthy pigs through direct contact or through contaminated feed, water, and equipment.
Symptoms of CSF include fever, lack of appetite, lethargy, and diarrhea. Some pigs may develop skin eruptions, and others may experience sudden death.
Antiviral drugs such as ribavirin and interferon-α can be used to treat CSF, although they are not always effective.
Some herbs such as ginger, turmeric, and garlic have shown to have antiviral properties and may help in reducing symptoms. These herbs can be added to the pig’s feed or used as a topical ointment.
Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing CSF in pigs. The use of good hygiene practices and biosecurity measures can also help prevent the spread of the virus.
These measures include limiting the movement of pigs and visitors in and out of pig farms, and regularly cleaning and disinfecting the facilities.
To control the spread of CSF, infected pigs should be isolated and disposed of promptly. Proper disinfection of premises and equipment is also crucial in controlling the spread of the virus.
#10. Porcine Respiratory and Digestive Syndrome (PRDS)
Porcine Respiratory and Digestive Syndrome (PRDS) is a highly contagious and deadly viral disease that affects pigs, primarily in the respiratory and digestive systems.
PRDS is caused by a coronavirus called Porcine Deltacoronavirus. The virus is spread through respiratory secretions and contaminated feed or water.
The symptoms of PRDS include respiratory distress, high fever, loss of appetite, diarrhea, and death. In severe cases, pigs may experience coughing, sneezing, and nasal discharge.
There are several drugs that can be used to treat PRDS, such as Ampicillin, Tylosin, and Oxytetracycline.
In addition to pharmaceutical drugs, herbal remedies such as Echinacea and garlic have been shown to have antiviral and immune-boosting properties. These herbs can be applied by mixing them with feed or water.
The most effective way to prevent PRDS is through vaccination and good biosecurity practices. This includes preventing contact between infected and healthy pigs, using disinfectants on equipment, and controlling the movement of pigs on and off the farm.
To control the spread of PRDS, it is important to isolate infected pigs and disinfect any equipment or materials that may have come into contact with the virus.
Pig Diseases In Humans
Pig diseases can be transmitted to humans through contact with contaminated food or water, or through close contact with infected pigs.
Some of the most common pig diseases that can infect humans include Salmonella, E. coli, Campylobacter, and Yersinia enterocolitica.
These diseases can cause a range of symptoms including fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.
Disease Caused By Pigs
In addition to the bacterial diseases mentioned above, pigs can also carry a number of viruses that can be transmitted to humans, including Influenza A virus, Nipah virus, and Swine Vesicular Disease. These viruses can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, headache, muscle aches, and respiratory symptoms.
Bacterial Diseases In Pigs
Bacterial diseases are a common problem for pigs, and can be caused by a number of different bacteria, including Salmonella, E. coli, and Streptococcus suis.
These diseases can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, diarrhea, vomiting, and respiratory symptoms.
Common Swine Diseases And Treatment Ppt
Common swine diseases include Porcine Respiratory and Reproductive Syndrome (PRRS), Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2), and Classical Swine Fever.
Treatment of these diseases can vary depending on the specific cause, but may include antibiotics, antiviral drugs, or supportive care.
Swine Diseases PDF
There are a number of resources available in PDF format that provide information on swine diseases and treatment.
These resources can be found online, and can provide valuable information on the symptoms, causes, and treatment options for a range of pig diseases.
Most Common Pig Diseases
The most common pig diseases include Porcine Respiratory and Reproductive Syndrome (PRRS), Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2), and Classical Swine Fever.
These diseases can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, coughing, and respiratory distress, and can be highly contagious among pigs.
What Diseases Can Pigs Give To Humans
Pigs can transmit a number of diseases to humans, including bacterial infections such as Salmonella, E. coli, and Campylobacter, as well as viral infections such as Influenza A virus, Nipah virus, and Swine Vesicular Disease.
Pig Common Diseases
Other common pig diseases include Swine Dysentery, Atrophic Rhinitis, and Erysipelas. These diseases can cause a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, respiratory distress, and skin infections.
In conclusion, pig diseases can pose a significant risk to both pigs and humans. It is important to take steps to prevent the spread of these diseases, such as practicing good hygiene and biosecurity measures, and ensuring that infected pigs are treated promptly and appropriately. Understanding the symptoms and treatment options for the most common pig diseases can help to prevent and manage outbreaks, and protect both pigs and humans.