[Beginners Guide] How to Grow Cocoa in Uganda - Agrolearner.com
How To Grow Cocoa In Uganda

[Beginners Guide] How to Grow Cocoa in Uganda

Uganda is one of the most promising countries for cocoa production in the African continent. With its rich soil, favorable climate, and skilled labor force, cocoa production can be a lucrative crop for Ugandan farmers.

Growing cocoa in Uganda requires a few key considerations, such as selecting a site, getting your cocoa variety, preparing the soil, planting the seeds, irrigation, cocoa farm management, and harvesting.

With the right conditions and proper care, cocoa can be a rewarding and lucrative crop for Ugandan farmers. This guide provides an overview of the steps needed to successfully grow cocoa in Uganda.

Step By Step Guide On How to Grow Cocoa in Uganda

Cocoa is an important crop in Uganda due to its many benefits. It is used to make chocolate and other products, and it serves as a source of income for many farmers in the country. Growing cocoa in Uganda can be a rewarding and profitable endeavor if done correctly. Here is the step-by-step guide to growing cocoa in Uganda.

Step 1. Select a site

When selecting the site to plant your cocoa, whether in your backyard, garden, or large farmland, there are factors you need to consider.

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Start by choosing an area with a warm climate because Cocoa trees thrive in warm climates with temperatures between 20-30°C. Select an area with the right temperature range.

Ensure the area has deep, fertile soil as cocoa trees need deep, well-drained, fertile soil for optimal growth. If possible, choose an area with soil that is rich in organic matter.

Also, select an area with adequate rainfall because Cocoa trees need between 1500-2500 mm of rainfall every year to grow and produce quality beans. Select an area that receives the right amount of rain. However, you need to avoid areas prone to flooding because cocoa trees are prone to flooding and cannot tolerate standing water for long periods. Avoid planting trees in areas prone to flooding.

Step 2. Get your Cocoa Variety

Uganda is one of the leading cocoa producers in Africa and several cocoa varieties are commonly grown in the country. The most popular varieties are Trinitario, Forastero, and Nacional.

When selecting a cocoa variety for cocoa farming in Uganda, you should consider the climate and soil conditions of their area, as well as the market demand for cocoa.

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You should also consider the disease resistance of the variety, as some varieties are more susceptible to disease than others. A good choice of cocoa variety to plant in Uganda is the Trinitario variety, as it produces high-quality cocoa with a strong flavor, has good disease resistance, and is widely available in the market.

Step 3. Prepare the soil

Clear all trees, grass, and debris from the area to be planted. Amend the soil as needed to bring it to the ideal range of 6.0-6.5 pH and maintain adequate levels of organic matter and available nutrients.

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Till the soil to a depth of 15-20 cm (6-8 inches) and add compost, manure, and other organic material to enrich the soil. Dig planting holes: Dig planting holes that are approximately 2 feet deep and 2 feet wide.

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Step 4. Plant the seeds

Plant the cocoa seeds in rows in the prepared planting holes, making sure to space them at least 15 feet apart. Firmly press the soil around the seedling to ensure good contact with the roots. Water the seedlings regularly, but not excessively, and mulch around them to help maintain moisture.

Step 5. Irrigation

Watering a cocoa plant during germination season should be done carefully. During the germination season, the plant should be watered lightly and infrequently. The soil should be kept slightly damp, not drenched.

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It is important to check the soil moisture frequently and adjust the amount of water accordingly. It is also important to avoid over-watering, as this can cause the seeds to rot. During hot and dry weather, frequent light waterings may be necessary to maintain proper soil moisture.

Step 6. Cocoa Farm Management

You need to make out time or employ someone to oversee the production, and maintenance of your cocoa farm. Ensure the following are carried out properly.

Fertilizer Application

Fertilizers are essential for cocoa farms to ensure the trees have enough nutrients to produce healthy cocoa beans. Fertilizers should be applied every 3 to 6 months or whenever the soil is showing signs of nutrient deficiency.

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It is important to apply the right amount of fertilizer and to monitor the soil regularly to ensure the trees are adequately nourished.

Weed Control

Weeds can compete with cocoa trees for nutrients and water, and can also act as hosts for diseases and pests. To control weeds, it is important to maintain the soil in a healthy condition, remove weeds by hand or with herbicides, and keep the area around the trees free of weeds.

Disease and Pest Control

To keep cocoa trees healthy, it is important to identify and treat any diseases and pests that may be present. Some common diseases and pests affecting cocoa trees include root rot, fungal infections, mealybugs, and scale insects. To prevent and treat disease and pest infestations, it is important to monitor the trees regularly and use appropriate pesticides and fungicides.

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Pruning is an important part of cocoa farm management. Pruning helps to maintain the shape of the trees and to promote healthy growth. Pruning should be done at least once a year, usually in the spring. During pruning, dead or damaged branches should be removed and thinning cuts should be made to encourage healthy growth.

Step 7. Harvest

Cocoa beans should be harvested when they are fully ripe, usually during the fall and winter months. After harvesting, the cocoa beans should be processed and dried as soon as possible to ensure the best quality. The beans can then be sold to chocolate manufacturers or exported to other countries.

Varieties of Cocoa in Uganda

There are mainly two varieties of cocoa that are grown in Uganda: Criollo and Forastero. Criollo is a rare type of cocoa that is known for its delicate flavor and aroma, while Forastero is a more common variety that has a slightly bitter taste.

In addition to these two varieties, there is also a hybrid variety known as Trinitario, which is a cross between Criollo and Forastero.

How Much Is Cocoa Sold In Uganda

The price of cocoa in Uganda varies depending on the quality and grade of the cocoa beans. On average, a kilogram of cocoa beans can be sold for around 2,500 to 3,000 Ugandan shillings ($0.70 to $0.83 USD). However, the price can fluctuate based on supply and demand.

Best Agronomic Practices to Engage In Growing Cocoa in Uganda:

Some of the best agronomic practices to engage in growing cocoa in Uganda include:

  1. Proper land preparation, including clearing and plowing of the land before planting
  2. Soil testing to determine the fertility level and nutrient requirements of the soil
  3. Planting shade trees to provide a suitable microclimate for cocoa trees
  4. Use of high-quality planting materials such as seedlings or grafted plants
  5. Proper spacing of the cocoa trees to allow for adequate light and air circulation
  6. Regular application of fertilizers and other soil amendments to maintain soil fertility
  7. Regular pruning and maintenance of the cocoa trees to promote healthy growth and high yields
  8. Proper weed and pest management to minimize crop damage and maximize yields.
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Projected Profit of Cocoa in Uganda:

The projected profit of cocoa in Uganda can vary depending on several factors, including the size of the cocoa farm, yield per acre, market prices, and production costs.

However, cocoa farming can be a profitable venture, especially for smallholder farmers who practice good agronomic practices and participate in fair trade programs.

On average, a well-managed cocoa farm in Uganda can generate profits of around 1 to 2 million Ugandan shillings ($280 to $560 USD) per acre per year.

Common Diseases and Pest of Cocoa in Uganda:

Some of the common diseases and pests of cocoa in Uganda include:

Black pod disease, which causes blackening and rotting of cocoa pods. Treatment options include pruning infected pods and using fungicides.

Cocoa mirids, which are small insects that feed on the sap of cocoa trees, causing leaf distortion and damage to the pods. Treatment options include the use of insecticides and regular pruning and maintenance of the trees.

Capsids, which are another type of insect that feeds on young cocoa pods, causing damage and stunting of the pods. Treatment options include the use of insecticides and regular pruning and maintenance of the trees.

Phytophthora diseases, which cause root rot and stem cankers in cocoa trees. Treatment options include the use of fungicides, proper drainage, and good soil management practices.

Different Propagation Method of Cocoa in Uganda:

The most common propagation methods for cocoa in Uganda are through seedlings and grafting. Seedlings are grown from seeds and are used for planting new cocoa farms.

Grafting involves combining the stem of a desired cocoa variety with a rootstock of a different cocoa variety to create a hybrid plant that combines the desirable traits of both varieties. Grafting is commonly used to propagate Trinitario cocoa trees in Uganda.

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Planting Cocoa

Planting cocoa involves selecting and preparing the land, selecting and planting the best cocoa variety for the area, managing weeds, pests, and diseases, and harvesting and selling cocoa beans. With proper care and management, cocoa can yield high returns for farmers.

Cacao Plant

Cacao is a tropical evergreen tree native to Central and South America, where its beans are used to make cocoa and chocolate products. The tree is considered an important crop for its economic, social, and environmental benefits.

Planting Cocoa Beans

Cocoa beans are planted in well-drained soil and need plenty of sun and warmth for successful growth. The soil should be prepared by digging a hole and adding compost or fertilizer.

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The beans should be planted about 3 inches apart and covered with soil. Water regularly, and the beans should germinate in 7-14 days. After several years, the cocoa tree will begin to bear fruit.

How To Grow Cocoa Beans

Cocoa beans can be grown in tropical climates with ample rainfall, warmth, and shelter from the wind. Plant the beans 1-2 inches deep in nutrient-rich soil and provide them with plenty of water, organic fertilizer, and plenty of sunshine. Monitor the soil’s pH level and provide shade if necessary.

Prune the plants regularly and remove any dead or damaged leaves. Harvest the beans when they have turned a deep brown color and enjoy the delicious cocoa beans.

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How To Grow Cocoa

Follow the step below to successfully grow cocoa in your home garden or farmland.

  1. Plant cocoa seeds in pots or directly in the soil by burying them 5 cm deep.
  2. Ensure the soil is nutrient-rich and well-draining.
  3. Provide plenty of sunlight and water regularly.
  4. Prune the cocoa tree to maintain an ideal height and shape.
  5. Fertilize the cocoa tree every 6-8 weeks.
  6. Harvest the cocoa pods when they are ripe.
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Cocoa Yield Per Acre In Uganda

Cocoa yields in Uganda vary widely, depending on the region, soil fertility, and farming practices. Average yields range from 300 to 500 kg per hectare (2.47-4.12 tons per acre).

Improved farming practices and better quality inputs can increase yields up to 1 ton per acre.

Cocoa Production In Uganda PDF

Cocoa yields in Uganda are low, averaging around 500-600 kg/ha. This is due to a lack of access to quality inputs, inadequate agronomic practices, and pests and diseases.

Where To Buy Cocoa Seedlings In Uganda

Cocoa seedlings can be purchased from several suppliers in Uganda, including the National Agricultural Research Organisation (NARO), the National Crop Resources Research Institute (NaCRRI), and private nurseries. Seedlings can also be purchased from crop shops, agro-vets, and agro-input dealers.

Cocoa Growing In Bundibugyo District

Bundibugyo District in Uganda is a major cocoa-growing region. Cocoa is one of the most important cash crops in the district, providing income for farmers and a source of foreign exchange for the country.

The district is home to large-scale cocoa plantations as well as small-scale farmers who grow cocoa for their consumption. The cocoa produced in the district is of high quality, making it one of the most sought-after cocoa-growing regions in the world.

The district also has a favorable climate and soil conditions, making it an ideal location for cocoa production.

History Of Cocoa Production In Uganda

Uganda has a long history of cocoa production, stretching back to the late 19th century. In 1895, the first cocoa plantations were established in the country, and by the early 20th century, Uganda had become one of the leading cocoa producers in East Africa.

In the decades that followed, cocoa production flourished, as farmers and businesses invested in new production methods and improved varieties of cocoa. By the 1970s, Uganda was the second largest cocoa producer in Africa, behind only Côte d’Ivoire.

In the decades since cocoa production has declined due to civil unrest, but the industry remains an important part of the Ugandan economy. Today, the country is still among the top 10 cocoa-producing nations in the world.

Cocoa Buyers In Uganda

Cocoa buyers in Uganda purchase cocoa beans from farmers for processing, export, and sale. They provide farmers with an important source of income and help ensure the quality of the cocoa beans produced in the country.

Cocoa buyers also play an important role in helping to develop Uganda’s cocoa industry by providing access to new markets and helping to build the industry’s reputation.

How To Grow Cocoa In Uganda

Uganda is a good country to grow cocoa in due to its climate and soil conditions. To grow cocoa, farmers should first select a suitable site with well-drained soil and plenty of sunshine.

The soil should be prepared by adding compost and other organic material to improve fertility. Planting cocoa beans is best done in the early rainy season, and it is important to ensure the seeds are of good quality.

Watering and weeding should be done regularly to ensure the plants thrive. Regularly checking for pests and diseases and taking appropriate action when necessary is essential for successful crop production. Finally, pruning and harvesting should take place when appropriate.

How Long Does Cocoa Take To Grow In Uganda

Cocoa takes three to four years to reach maturity in Uganda, with the first good harvest occurring after five years.

How To Grow Cocoa

To grow cocoa, prepare a warm, sunny spot in the garden and mix soil with compost. Plant cocoa seeds in the soil, spacing them 12-15 inches apart. Keep the soil consistently moist and fertilize monthly with a balanced fertilizer.

Harvest the pods when they turn bright yellow and split open. Crack the pods open, remove the beans and dry them in the sun.

Where Is Cocoa Grown In Uganda

Cocoa is grown in the Eastern, Western, and Central regions of Uganda, particularly in the districts of Mayuge, Busia, Kabarole, Kibale, Masindi, Kalangala, and Budaka.

How To Grow Cacao At Home

  1. Purchase cacao tree saplings from a nursery, online, or a local farmer.
  2. Plant the saplings in well-draining, rich soil in an area that receives full sun for at least six hours a day.
  3. Water the saplings regularly, allowing the soil to dry out in between watering sessions.
  4. Fertilize the saplings once a month with a high-potassium fertilizer.
  5. Prune the trees as they grow to promote branching and keep them at a manageable size.
  6. Harvest the cacao pods when they turn yellow.
  7. Crack open the cacao pods to remove the seeds and discard the shells.
  8. Place the seeds in a warm, dry place to dry and store them in an airtight container until ready to use.


Growing cocoa in Uganda requires a lot of knowledge and care. With the right conditions, it is possible to cultivate a successful cocoa crop.

Author: David

David is a Kenyan farmer from the rural village of Nairobi. Growing up, he was surrounded by the beauty of the Kenyan countryside, which sparked his passion for farming. After completing his education, he decided to pursue a career in agriculture and has since dedicated his life to providing food for his local community. David is an experienced farmer and is experienced in a range of agricultural practices, including crop rotation, animal husbandry and soil management. He is passionate about promoting sustainable agriculture and is actively working to reduce food insecurity in his community.

2 Replies to “[Beginners Guide] How to Grow Cocoa in Uganda

  1. It’s a very interesting topic on how to grow cocoa and am George in Fortportal also a candidate to cocoa growing

    1. This sound good and interesting.
      You may share your farming experience with others on this platform as you journey along your cocoa cultivation career.

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