[Beginners Guide] How To Grow Cocoa In Zambia - Agrolearner.com
How To Grow Cocoa In Zambia

[Beginners Guide] How To Grow Cocoa In Zambia

Cocoa is an important crop in Zambia and is a major source of income for smallholder farmers. Growing cocoa in Zambia is a profitable venture and a great way to support the local economy and communities.

The steps to growing cocoa in Zambia include choosing the right location, soil preparation, getting the cocoa variety, planting cocoa seeds, cocoa farm management, and harvesting.

In recent years, cocoa farming has become increasingly popular in Zambia, leading to a surge in the number of cocoa growers in the nation. To start growing and profiting from growing cocoa in Zambia, ensure you read through this article to the end.

How To Grow Cocoa In Zambia Step By Step Guide

Cocoa is a crop that is widely grown in Zambia and is a major cash crop for many small-scale farmers. Growing cocoa in Zambia requires a significant amount of knowledge and experience. The following steps will provide an overview of how to grow cocoa in Zambia.

Step 1. Choose The Right Location:

When choosing cocoa seedlings to plant, it is vital to examine their quality. Opt for seedlings that are strong, vigorous, and free of any pests or diseases.

Also, evaluate the seedlings’ potential to yield a high crop, considering factors such as the diversity of the seedlings, the ideal growing conditions, and the environment in which they will be planted.

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When acquiring cocoa varieties, you can purchase from local cocoa farmers, international cocoa companies, and research entities and universities.

Step 2. Prepare The Soil

Soil preparation is another important step in the process of growing cocoa in Zambia. Clear the area by removing all vegetation and debris from the area and plow or rotovate the soil to a depth of at least 15 cm.

Till and harrow the soil to break up large clods and incorporate fertilizer and organic matter into the soil. Level the Area: Use a laser level to ensure that the area is properly leveled.

Step 3. Get Your Cocoa Variety

To successfully grow cocoa in Zambia, you must choose the right variety for their local conditions. The most popular varieties of cocoa grown in Zambia are the Trinitario and the Forastero, which are considered to be the highest quality.

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It is important to choose a variety that is well-adapted to the local conditions, as this will ensure a higher yield and better quality cocoa beans.

Step 4. Plant The Seeds

Planting cocoa seedling directly in the prepared soil is the most common method of planting in Zambia. It involves digging holes in the soil and planting seedlings or cuttings at least 20 cm (8 inches) apart. Farmers should use fertilizer to provide the trees with nutrients and water them regularly to ensure good growth.

Step 5. Water The Plants

The best way to water a cocoa plant in Zambia is to use drip irrigation. This system slowly and evenly waters the plant’s roots, which helps them to develop better. It is also important to water the cocoa plants at the right time of day, ideally early in the morning, to help ensure that the water is absorbed by the soil. It is important to check the soil moisture level regularly and adjust the amount of water accordingly.

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Step 6. Fertilize The Plants

Fertilizer application is essential for cocoa growers to ensure maximum yields. Cocoa farmers should use a balanced fertilizer blend that contains the three essential macronutrients: nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K).

The exact blend of fertilizer depends on the soil type, plant type, and stage of growth of the cocoa tree, but a general recommendation is to use a 10-10-10 blend, meaning 10% nitrogen, 10% phosphorus, and 10% potassium.

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Step 7. Weed/Pest and Disease Control

Weed control can be achieved through hand weeding which is the most common and effective method of weed control in cocoa farms. The weeds are removed manually. Other methods of weed control are mulching and the use of herbicides. Pest and disease control on the cocoa farm can be achieved through cultural control, biological control, and chemical control.

Step 8. Harvest The Beans

Harvesting cocoa beans involves a few steps. First, the pods must be harvested from the cocoa tree. This is usually done by hand using a machete or a small tool to cut the pods from the tree.

Once the pods are collected, they are split open with a machete to reveal the cocoa beans inside. The beans are then removed and placed in a container.

After the beans are collected, they are then dried in the sun for several days before being hulled and sent to a chocolate factory.

Varieties of Cocoa in Zambia

In Zambia, there are two main varieties of cocoa that are grown: the Forastero and the Trinitario. The Forastero is a hardier variety that is more resistant to diseases and pests, while the Trinitario is more delicate and has a better flavor profile. Some farmers also grow hybrids of these two varieties.

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How Much Is Cocoa Sold In Zambia

The price of cocoa in Zambia can vary depending on the market demand, supply, and quality of the cocoa beans. On average, cocoa can be sold for around 4,000 to 5,000 Zambian Kwacha per 50-kilogram bag. However, the price can be higher or lower depending on the above factors.

Best Agronomic Practices to Engage In Growing Cocoa in Zambia

To successfully grow cocoa in Zambia, it is important to engage in best agronomic practices.

These include proper site selection, land preparation, and planting, as well as the use of quality planting materials, proper pest and disease management, and good post-harvest handling practices.

It is also important to provide adequate shade for cocoa trees, as they do not thrive in direct sunlight.

Projected Profit of Cocoa in Zambia

The projected profit of cocoa in Zambia can vary depending on several factors such as market prices, yield per hectare, and cost of production.

On average, a farmer can expect to make a profit of around 1,000 to 2,000 Zambian Kwacha per 50-kilogram bag of cocoa beans.

However, this figure can be higher or lower depending on the factors mentioned above.

Common Diseases and Pest of Cocoa in Zambia

Common diseases and pests of cocoa in Zambia include black pod disease, swollen shoot disease, cocoa mirid bug, and cocoa capsid bug.

To manage these pests and diseases, farmers can use cultural control methods such as pruning and removing infected plant material, as well as chemical control methods such as the use of fungicides and insecticides.

It is important to properly identify the pest or disease before applying any control measures.

Different Propagation Method of Cocoa in Zambia

There are two main methods of propagating cocoa in Zambia: seed propagation and vegetative propagation.

Seed propagation involves planting seeds from a mature cocoa tree, while vegetative propagation involves taking cuttings from a mature cocoa tree and planting them to grow a new tree.

The vegetative propagation method is preferred because it produces plants that are genetically identical to the parent plant and are therefore more predictable in terms of yield and quality.

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Cocoa Farming In Zambia

Cocoa farming is a major agricultural activity in Zambia, with thousands of small farmers relying on the crop for their livelihoods. The country produces a high-quality cocoa bean that is used in the production of chocolate and other cocoa-based products. The government has implemented several initiatives to support the growth of the sector, including providing support to farmers and investing in research and development.

Cocoa Cultivation

Cocoa is a tropical crop grown in parts of the world with warm and humid climates, such as Central and South America, Africa, and Asia Pacific. The cocoa tree yields its fruits after about three to five years of planting, and the beans inside the cocoa pod are used to make chocolate.

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Cocoa cultivation requires careful management, including pruning and fertilizing the trees, harvesting the pods, fermenting and drying the beans, and selecting and processing the beans.

How To Grow Cocoa Tree

  1. Buy a cocoa tree seedling with healthy roots.
  2. Plant the seedlings in moist, well-draining soil in a sunny location.
  3. Water the tree regularly and mulch to keep the soil moist.
  4. Fertilize with a fertilizer high in potassium and low in nitrogen.
  5. Prune the tree to encourage growth and shape.
  6. Protect the tree from pests and diseases with organic sprays.
  7. Harvest the pods when they are ripe, usually after 6-9 months.

Cocoa Tree Growing Conditions

Cocoa trees thrive in tropical climates with temperatures between 68°F and 86°F, with high humidity and rainfall of at least 50 inches per year. They require rich, well-drained soil in full sun and regular pruning to maintain an ideal shape.

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How To Grow Cocoa Plant At Home

To grow a cocoa plant at home, you will need a large container, fresh soil, compost, fertilizer, and cocoa seeds or cuttings. First, fill the container with soil and compost and mix.

Plant the cocoa seeds and water regularly. Place the container in a warm, sunny location and fertilize the plant every two weeks. Trim the plant frequently to promote health and stimulate new growth. Harvest the cocoa beans when they are ripe.

Cocoa Plant

Cocoa is a tropical plant native to Central and South America that is cultivated for its seeds, which are processed to make cocoa butter, cocoa powder, and chocolate.

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About Cocoa

Cocoa is a tropical evergreen tree native to South America. It is the source of cocoa beans, which are used to make cocoa butter, chocolate, and other products. The cocoa tree grows in hot, humid climates and can reach up to 16 m in height. Cocoa beans are the seeds of the cocoa tree and are used to produce cocoa powder and chocolate.

Soil Requirement For Cocoa

Cocoa requires well-drained and fertile soil, with a pH of 5.5-6.5. The soil should retain moisture, yet not be waterlogged. Additionally, it should be rich in organic matter with good drainage.

Chocolate Comes From What Plant

Chocolate comes from the cocoa tree, which is native to Central and South America. The cocoa beans are used to make chocolate, which is produced by grinding the beans, adding cocoa butter and sugar, and then mixing and refining the mixture until it is smooth and creamy.

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Cocoa Production In West Africa

Cocoa is a major cash crop in West Africa, with most production concentrated in the Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, and Cameroon. These countries together produce over 70 percent of the world’s cocoa, making West Africa the largest cocoa-producing region in the world. Cocoa is grown primarily by smallholder farmers, cultivated using traditional farming methods, and sold to cooperatives, who in turn sell it to larger buyers.

West African cocoa is renowned for its superior quality, making it a sought-after commodity in the global market.


To grow cocoa in Zambia, it is important to take into consideration the local climate, soil, and market conditions. You should select the right varieties of cocoa that are suitable for the local environment. You should use appropriate agronomic practices such as proper soil management and irrigation to ensure a good harvest.

Author: David

David is a Kenyan farmer from the rural village of Nairobi. Growing up, he was surrounded by the beauty of the Kenyan countryside, which sparked his passion for farming. After completing his education, he decided to pursue a career in agriculture and has since dedicated his life to providing food for his local community. David is an experienced farmer and is experienced in a range of agricultural practices, including crop rotation, animal husbandry and soil management. He is passionate about promoting sustainable agriculture and is actively working to reduce food insecurity in his community.

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