How To Start Pig Farming In Nigeria {Beginners Guide}

Farming in Nigeria is one of the areas that is fast growing and giving profitable returns to the farmers who are into it.

To start and become a successful pig farm in Nigeria, you need to have knowledge of how to raise pigs, the cost of running the farm, getting healthy pigs, and many others you will learn as your start the farm.

To become successful in pig farming, you need to take care of the pigs as your personal pets.

So, let us get to the nitty-gritty of how you can start pig farming in Nigeria.

How To Start Pig Farming In Nigeria

Table of Contents

To start and become a successful pig farm in Nigeria, you need to have knowledge of how to raise pigs, the cost of running the farm, getting healthy pigs, and many others you will learn as your start the farm.

Today, the least pig is sold for 50,000 nairas. So starting this business is what you can make a huge profit from.

A Sow And A Boar In A Pig Farm
A Sow And A Boar In A Pig Farm

Step by step guide on how to start pig farming in Nigeria (Piggery)

It is advisable to buy more Sows on your farm than Boar. Keep these tips because is it one of the secrets of successful pig farmers in Nigeria.

First Step: Get the Farm location

To get started with your pig farm, you need to secure a good location that is accessible to basic materials you will be needing. Materials such as PKC, clean waters, spacious area for the pigs to play around.

Before securing a location, you need to consider sitting your farm away from residential areas to prevent any inconveniences that may arise from it.

Read Also: How To Start Fish Farming In Nigeria [Step By Step Guide]

Step Two: Raise Good Pens For Your Pigs

One thing you must consider is the standard of house you will raise for your pigs. The more comfortable your pigs are in their pens, the fatter they grow and resistant to diseases.

Step Three: Employ Farmworkers

While you intend to work on your farm, it is essential to get manual laborers that will help in cleaning the dirt, looking out for your pigs, and taking proper care of the pigs.

You will need at least 1 to 5 workers depending on the size of your pig farm.

Step Four: Get a source of clean water

One frequent material that is always needed in the pig farm in large quantities is water. Ensure you site your farm near an area you can get quality water.

Step Five: Introduce your pigs

One stage that is of more importance is the type of pigs you buy. Ensure you talk with a specialist before buying any type of pig breed.

It is good you see a Vet who is more experience before venturing into buying pigs for your pig farming.

The number of piglets you need on your farm is dependent on the size of the farm you want to run, usually, it is advisable to buy more Sows (female pigs) than the Boar (Male Pigs).

This will reduce the cost of feeding and as well improve your productivity, it is suggested to have just one Matured Boar on your farm.

Step Six: Plan pig feeding

Another important aspect you should keep in mind is your piglets’ feeding. Ensure you introduce them to feed with a good nutrient ratio.

We will talk about the feed you can introduce to them shortly.

Read Also: How To Start Poultry Farming In Nigeria [Full Guide]

Step Seven: Prepare A Gestation Area For your Sows

You must ensure you prepare an area where your pigs deliver their piglets, where they can be separated to avoid violent sexual intercourse with them by the Boer.

Step Eight: Book Section with Veterinary Doctors

One important aspect that is mostly neglected by most farmers is having an animal doctor who will regularly come to your pig farm to check on your piglets and your farm as a whole.

Types of Pig Breeds To Start Your Pig Farm

Piglets In A Piggery Farm
Piglets In A Piggery Farm

Commercial pig farming can utilize a wide variety of pig breeds, all of which have their advantages and disadvantages. Several aspects of the production process, like the size of the litter, feed efficiency, and meat quality, are influenced by the breed used. We’ve covered seven of the top commercial pig breeds you need to know.

Others have poor feed conversion, limited litter sizes, and low mature body weight; they also reach maturity later than the average pig breed. Pigs have a number of undesirable traits that can harm the pig farming industry. In order to build a pig farm, you should start with one of the following unusual breeds of pigs:

1. Yorkshire (Large White)

The majority of this breed is white, however, they have a few freckles (black pigment spots). As the name suggests, Large White pigs have medium-length heads and wide nostrils.

It has a lovely, long, and full neck with broad shoulders and deep chests. Their backs are long, flat, and wide. As a general rule, mature boars and sows weigh between 300 kg and 450 kg.

The meat from large white pigs is of high quality. The breed has a high rate of procreation and is very good at utilizing the nourishment that it receives.

2. Hampshire

Black and white stripes traverse the shoulders and cover the front legs of the Hampshire pig. It has a big, broad body with short legs and a long, drooping tail.

His ears are erect and pointed forward. Less fat and lard are found in this breed than in the Landrace breed. At maturity, a boar weighs 300 kilograms (550 pounds), whereas a sow weighs 250 kilograms (550 pounds).

3. The Duroc

Generally speaking, the breed is reddish-brown, with tints ranging from golden to cherry red. The Duroc pig is well-known for its high feed converter and fast weight increase.

Early maturity, big litters (up to 15 piglets), and outstanding mothering skills are all hallmarks of this sow breed. Upon reaching maturity, a mature boar weighs approximately 400 kilograms, while an adult sow weighs approximately 350 kilograms.

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4. Chester White

Its white coat and huge ears make Chester White pigs a popular choice for pet owners. Even though the breed grows slowly, it is capable of producing large carcasses. In addition to its large and deep body, this creature has small legs and a pointed tail. For both meat and reproduction, Chester White boars and sows can weigh up to 300 kilograms each, making them a dual-purpose breed.

5. Camborough

The Camborough pig breed is ideal for meat production. There are 17 piglets on average per litter, and the sow is a great mother. The boar has a high level of stamina and a strong sense of urgency.

In terms of feed conversion, it performs admirably and has excellent disease resistance. It is also well-known for its ability to mature quickly and live a long and fruitful life.

Camborough is a commercial slaughter pig breed known for its lean meat and low-fat content. Adult boars and sows weigh up to 400 kg and 300 kg, respectively, when they’re full-grown.

6. The Landrace

White with freckles is also a common color for this breed. Short legs, a square ham, and large lop ears are some of the characteristics of this breed. The jowl is also considered to be trim. As a result, it has lower fat content than meat.

This breed is extremely prolific and efficient in its use of food. a mature heifer can weigh up to 380 kilograms, whereas a mature pig can weigh up to 320 kilograms.

7. Poland China

Poland China Large in stature, with floppy ears. It has a sturdy frame and well-proportioned limbs and toes. There are 16 to 17 piglets born per farrow, and the meat and carcass qualities are good.

In addition, it is a very efficient feed-to-meat converter and matures quickly. Weights of adult boars and sows range between 250 and 360 kilograms.

Types of Pig Feed

Porks will eat just about whatever scraps or leftover food they can get their paws on, including bread, other cereals, vegetables, and fruits. However, the best development rates are achieved when pigs are provided a specialized feed.

Knowing how to feed pigs correctly is the most critical aspect of swine production. Pigs require a high-energy diet that is low in fiber and high in protein, regardless of whether you’re looking at a piglet feeding guide or studying swine management methods.

In the blink of an eye, pigs are capable of consuming enormous amounts of food. Healthy animals require a well-balanced diet from weaning onwards to ensure optimal growth, reproduction, and production. This is true for livestock of all ages.

Read Also: How to start catfish farming Business In Nigeria {Beginners Guide}

Foods to Avoid Feeding your Swine (Pigs)

Certain forms of food should be avoided when making your own pig food mixture for a variety of reasons, from slower growth to outright toxicity. The following foods should not be fed to pigs:

  • Cracked corn
  • Sweets and high-sugar foods
  • Milk
  • Dog food
  • Meat
  • Potatoes
  • Fish
  • Fruits

Milk, meats, and fish can be infected by viruses, slowing growth rates. Toxic amygdalin is found in the pits and seeds of a variety of fruits and vegetables. This toxic cyanogenic glycoside is released into the mouth when the pits and seeds of certain fruits are chewed and can result in sickness, discomfort, or death.

In addition to glycoalkaloids, which can cause severe stomach pain or even death (though this is rare), potatoes contain solanine, a natural toxin that damages red blood cells causes diarrhea, and can cause heart failure.

How to Formulate Good Pig Feed

Feeding of Pigs Pigs will grow more efficiently if they are fed a high-quality diet. There should be enough energy, protein, minerals, and vitamins in the feed to meet the animal’s basic nutritional requirements.

Pigs are fed mostly on-farm grains, which are the most common and best source of nutrition. Corn-based diets are commonly utilized due to their high digestible carbohydrate content, low fiber content, and low cost.

To slow the growth of naturally occurring germs that may be hazardous to the animal or your stock, the feed should be supplemented with additional vitamins, proteins, and antibacterial chemicals.

Positive results have been obtained using a combination of grain by-products, such as rice bran and broken rice, as well as corn, soya beans, cassava, and vegetables.

Pig Food Requirements

Pigs’ feeding and water needs change as they mature.

Piglets (Under 40 lbs.)

Creep feeding piglets, those weighing less than 40 pounds, are the best way to expose them to a solid meal. Increasing a pig’s weight necessitates an increase in dietary requirements.

Growing & Finishing Pigs (40+ lbs.)

Porks in the growing and finishing stages, which range in weight from 40 to 125 pounds, should be switched from high-protein feeds for growers to lower-protein feeds for finishers when they reach a market weight of 125 pounds (230 pounds or more).

Expected pig growth rates

Because a pig consumes about 4% of its body weight each day, it needs a wide range of nutrients, including water, carbs, lipids, protein (amino acids), minerals, and vitamins, to meet its daily requirements.

Weight gains of 1.5 to 1.7 pounds per day might be expected for up to 110 pounds on a regular diet. A daily weight gain of 1.8 to 2.2 pounds occurred after that.

Guide To Improve the growth of Pig

A variety of other elements must be taken into account in order to maximize feed intake. Temperature and environmental management, proper water supply, and sanitation control procedures are all included in this category.

Temperature

The growth and productivity of pigs depend heavily on the pig’s body temperature. In terms of temperature, pigs are extremely versatile and can function well in a wide range of conditions. However, stock can suffer if the temperature is too low or too high.

When it’s too cold outside, a pig will eat more to keep warm, but its growth will be slower as a result. It is critical to keep livestock cool in the summer to avoid heat stress and reduced feed consumption (and even death).

Because of this, growth and maturity rates decline, suckling pigs are less common, and stock levels are disrupted. Pig growth and production rates can be maintained if buildings are well-ventilated or heated, and adequate air space is provided in the pen.

Water

Make sure there is plenty of clean, freshwater available. Pigs rely heavily on the water in their diets. Between 50 and 60 percent of its mass is water. It is critical for a pig’s growth that it has access to safe drinking water.

Weaned pigs are more susceptible to dehydration than older pigs. Devices for water supply must be sanitized and properly positioned, no matter how the water is provided. To stay properly hydrated, pigs require constant access to clean water.

Sanitation

Implement sanitation protocols. As a result of poor sanitation, people may not eat as much as they should. Feeders that are well-designed will encourage the optimum amount of food intake.

Common Disease in Pig Farm

Detecting the signs of common diseases in pigs is essential for anyone who interacts with them. Six of the most prevalent pig diseases are discussed in detail at each step of production in Pig International, including symptoms, treatments, and preventative strategies.

Pre-weaning period

1 Exudative dermatitis (greasy pig)

Staphylococcus hyicus is the bacterium that causes the skin lesions that characterize this disease.

2 Coccidiosis

Coccidia, an internal parasite, is the primary cause of this condition in suckling pigs.

Post-weaning period

3 Respiratory diseases

Respiratory sickness is characterized by coughing, sneezing, abdominal breathing, decreased growth rates, and even death.

4 Swine dysentery

Diarrhea is common in animals infected with this disease, whether or not blood is present.

Breeding stock

5 Mastitis

In sows, mastitis can lead to a decrease in milk output, as well as a loss of appetite and a higher body temperature.

6 Porcine parvovirus

Reproductive illness can occur in some circumstances when pregnant sows are infected with parvovirus (PPV).

How much does it cost to start a pig farm in Nigeria?

To start a small-scale pig farm in Nigeria you will have at least 100,000 nairas. If you are planning a large Swine farm (Pig farm) it is estimated to cost around 500,000 to 1,000,000 naira.

How profitable is the pig business in Nigeria?

Pig farming is profitable as well lucrative. As a pig farmer, you can earn roughly 1 million in a year with at least 20 Sows on your farm.

What do you need to start a pig farm?

To start a pig farm in Nigeria, you will need the following;

  • Good farm location
  • Good source of water supply
  • Well-constructed
  • Pens for your Swine
  • Fund for feeding your pigs
  • And good knowledge of pig farms.

How much is a kilo of pig in Nigeria?

The cost per kilo of a pig is between 500 nairas and 1500 naira

How much does a pig eat in 6 months?

Pig at six months will eat roughly 7 to 8 pounds of feed in 24hrs.

Which breed of pig is most profitable in Nigeria?

The most profitable pig breed for the farm is the Hampshire, Landrace, Yorkshire, and Duroc.

What is the most profitable breed of a pig?

The most profitable pig breed for the farm is the Hampshire, Landrace, Yorkshire, and Duroc.

How many pigs should I start with?

You can start with at least 2 Sows and 1 Boer.

How long does it take for pigs to grow?

You can grow a pig within six months.

Which pig breed grows fastest?

Duroc.

How much does it cost to build a pig pen in Nigeria?

The least you can build a pig pen is 100,000 to 200,000 naira.

How many piglets do a pig give birth to?

The least a Sow can give birth to at a time is 8-10.

Is piggery farming profitable in Nigeria?

Yes, piggery is one of the most profitable businesses in Nigeria.

Where is the biggest pig farm in Nigeria?

The biggest pig farm is situated at Oke Aro Farms in Lagos.

How many times should you bathe a pig?

In the case of 4-H projects, you should bathe your pigs roughly once a month so that they get acclimated to being cleaned before they travel to their local fair (and needs to be cleaned almost daily). Cleaning a pig for meat isn’t necessary if you’re growing it for its meat.

Conclusion

All you need to start a profitable pig farming is to have good funding in place, demonstrate a good skillset of how to raise a pig, maintain sanitation in and out of your farm, and many more.

So, if you need assistance with raising your pigs, you may let us know via the comment section.

Author: Adewebs

David is a seasoned farmer with over 8years experience on the field and teaching. He has about 20 acres of Palm farm, 10acres of livestock farm where he spent most of his time tending and caring for his farm. He offer profffesional services and consultancy services to clients who are interested in venturing into farming.

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