An interesting and lucrative aspect of animal husbandry is poultry farming. To become successful as a poultry farmer, you need to be knowledgeable about birds, common diseases, what to feed your birds, and how to manage your poultry very well.
The key to starting a successful poultry farming in Nigeria is good knowledge of rasing birds, skills on disease prevention, getting good capital, and a good location for sitting your farm.
As a successful poultry farmer in Nigeria, there are things you need to put in order for you to achieve success in your poultry farming and I will be giving you all you need to know about that shortly.
How To Start Poultry Farming In Nigeria
To begin your quest into poultry farming, we need to first make something clear. First, there are varieties of birds you can keep in poultry farming and they are;
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These are birds that are raised majorly for egg production. Some farmers limit their farm scope to these birds only for the sole purpose of supplying eggs either in large quantities or small quantities.
This is the common form of poultry farm in Nigeria.
Benefits of keeping layer birds
High demands for eggs:
Recently we conducted research on egg demands and supply in Nigeria, it turns out that, there are still large discrepancies in the supply of eggs. The demand for it is high and the quantities supplied are not enough.
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So as a farmer who keeps layers, you cannot experience low sales, rather the quantity you produce is not even enough for people who are in need of eggs.
You Can Make Lots Of Profits:
You can make huge profits if you keep layers. This is because some birds drop at least 2 eggs in a day which is an added advantage for you as a farmer.
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The price of eggs is on the rise; you cannot witness sudden price change which happens in another market.
The death rate in layers farms is very low:
All things being equal if you keep the environment of your poultry clean, and you feed your birds regularly, the death rate in this type of farm is low compared to other birds.
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Disadvantages of keeping layer birds
To make your layers more productive means you will have to feed them regularly and adequately which invariably will tell on your running cost.
High cost of maintenance:
To maintain a layers farm, you must be prepared to spend huge capital, especially for farmers who are looking into raising more than a thousand birds.
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Cost of Buying layers birds
Pullet between 2-5 weeks is sold for 800 naira per one.
Pullet above 10weeks is sold for 1,500 naira and above.
This is another species of bird that is similar to local birds. This type of bird is strong, cheap, and easy to maintain.
One Cockerel is sold for 100naira.
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This is another type of bird that is similar to layers of birds. The only difference is that these species are stronger than layers, agile, and productive.
One Noiler is sold for 500naira only.
These are birds that are raised majorly for their meat. They are raised and being butchered to sell as frozen food in local groceries stores.
One 2weeks broiler is sold for 1,200naira.
This is another special bird that is raised for meat. These birds are usually profitable, bigger in size than all of the birds.
Day old Turkey is sold for 1,000naira.
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This is also a species of bird that is been kept to sell for those who will eat them or for those who will keep them as a pet.
How to start a poultry farming Business in Nigeria
Step One: Locate a suitable farm site
One thing you must consider when choosing your farm location is access to water, is the farmland not prone to natural bird predators such as cats, snakes, and foxes.
And if it is prone to them, ensure you have devised trap and safety procedures for your birds against these predators.
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After this is considered, then you will need to site this far away from residential areas. This is because poultry situated close to a residential area tends to pose threat to the environment because the odor oozing out of your poultry is enough to cause some Asthma patients to choke.
Step Two: Raise a good cage/shelter for your birds
One thing you must keep in mind while siting your poultry is to build a good cage or shelter to protect your birds from adverse weather and prevent unrestricted movement, and access to toxic materials.
Step Three: Buy and stock your preferred bird’s specie
After you have made the housing available, then you can go ahead and stuck your poultry with varieties of birds you intend to raise.
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Do not venture into buying birds you do not have firsthand information about.
Step Four: identify the best feed for your birds
One thing you must also consider while raising birds is to checkout for the best feed you can give to that particular bird you are keeping.
For every bird, there is food formulation and content formulation for each bird according to their breed requirements.
Step Five: Maintain your poultry and keep it clean
The common way to allow infection and widespread diseases in your poultry farm is when you do not keep clean hygiene within and outside the farm premises.
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Step Six: Register with a certified Veterinary Doctor
If you want to reduce the death rate and rate of disease spread on your farm, you need to book a section with a certified Veterinary Doctor to always check on your birds at the appointed time he or she will give to you.
Video how to start poultry business:
Common Poultry Diseases And Prevention Methods
Birds are susceptible to avian influenza (AI), a respiratory disease. Chickens, pheasants, turkeys, ducks, quail, geese, and guinea fowl are only some of the birds that can be infected by AI viruses.
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Viruses can be transmitted via
- Wild waterfowl.
- The illegal movement of birds across international borders.
- People and farm machinery move around the farm.
- Poultry and poultry products were smuggled in.
- Personnel and equipment that have come into touch with the virus, including infected poultry equipment (such as crates, manure, vehicles, and egg flats).
- Direct bird-to-bird contact
- Sudden and unexplained death
- Irritability and a lack of desire to eat
- Lack of eggs or eggs with a weak or deformed shell.
- Combs, wattles, and legs swelled to the point of bursting
- Feathers and legs appear to have purple discoloration.
- Sneezing, coughing, and a runny nose and all symptoms of a cold.
- The lack of cohesion
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Prevention of AI:
- Poultry should be kept indoors.
- Discourage children from playing with livestock water features and bird feeders.
- Steer clear of the bird markets that sell live birds
- Cats, rats, beetles, insects, and other pests must be kept under control.
- When death is unusual, get a second opinion from a medical professional.
- Stay away from your animals if you work in the meat or poultry processing industry.
- Avoid using the same piece of equipment in many locations.
- Equipment that is shared or borrowed should be thoroughly disinfected before use.
Exotic Newcastle Disease
Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) is a viral disease that can infect and kill any species of bird. An extremely contagious illness among chickens. In many cases, the END virus is so lethal that birds perish without showing any symptoms of illness.
An over 100 percent mortality rate can occur in unvaccinated chicken flocks, and END can cause death even in vaccinated birds. Birds illegally trafficked into the United States are not quarantined and inspected by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, which means they may be infected with the END virus.
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How Birds contact it:
- Direct contact between healthy birds and the body fluids of sick birds
- Increasingly among caged birds, such as hens and turkeys grown for commercial purposes
- By coming into contact with virus-carrying objects such as footwear, clothing, equipment, and vehicles
Clinical Signs of END
- gasping for air, Sneezing, nasal discharge, coughing
- Greenish, watery diarrhea
- muscular tremors, Depression, twisting of head and neck, drooping wings, circling, and paralysis
- Drops in egg production can range from partial to total
- Thin-shelled egg production
- Eye and neck tissues become swollen.
- Shockingly high mortality rates in contaminated flocks
Prevention of END:
Sound immunization programs and biosecurity practices can help prevent the spread of END. Keep away from birds owned by others, as well as those that are used in hunting and those sold at live bird markets.
The Pullorum-Typhoid (PT) bacteria are able to adapt to any fowl they come into contact with, making them a threat to any poultry. Turkeys, for example, have a high risk of contracting the disease.
Serum tests are necessary for these birds because research has proven that this is the most effective method. Pullorum-typhoid illness is particularly contagious in chickens.
As with humans, the bacterium can be carried by both hens and roosters, usually without any visible signs of infection. An adult bird’s joints could show symptoms of swelling, which indicates probable pullorum-typhoid infection.
How Birds Contact it:
- primarily passed on from mother hen to her tiny hatchlings via the egg
- Infected birds’ digestive and respiratory secretions can also spread the disease.
Clinical Signs of PT:
- swelling in mature birds’ joints
- severe damage to a large number of vital organs
- Paste-like white feces (the disease was originally called bacillary white diarrhea)
- Chicks and poults differ in their appearance (drowsiness, lack of appetite, drooping wing, labored breathing, swelling in joints, and a stunted or distorted body appearance)
- Some broods have as many as 100 percent mortality rates in the first three weeks after hatching.
How Are Diseases Spread on a poultry farm?
Most diseases are spread by:
- Direct bird-to-bird contact or infected manure.
- Indirect contact with people, contaminated equipment, and the environment.
You need to know that Infectious agents must have a “home base,” or repository of the disease, in order to thrive in a given location. There are many possibilities for this reservoir, which might include other birds or organic substances. Your flock’s health can be dramatically improved by disrupting the ways by which diseases propagate.
Diseases Of Poultry That Cause Large Destruction
Diseases that affect and have a bigger impact on the avian population than others have varying degrees of severity. In response to one of these, pullorum-typhoid illness, a national poultry improvement plan was established.
Because of the efforts of the National Program for Immunization Prevention (NPIP), the disease has been practically eliminated. Testing for pullorum-typhoid, on the other hand, must be maintained because of the ongoing exposure from imported birds and other sources of the disease.
While the threat of pullorum-typhoid illness has decreased dramatically, other diseases still pose a hazard to today’s poultry population.. Exotic Newcastle Disease and avian influenza are two examples.
It is possible to safeguard your birds and improve animal health by learning about these diseases. Listed here are descriptions of various diseases, including symptoms, the ways they spread, and the best ways to prevent them. Spend some time studying what you’ve just learned.
Guide To Prevent Disease Outbreak In Your Poultry Farm
To prevent the spread of disease, action must be taken soon.
The sooner you take action to restrict a disease in your flock, the sooner it may be eliminated. The following precautions should be taken to limit the transmission of the disease to your flock and other flocks in the industry:
The unwell birds should be separated from the rest of the flock.
A veterinarian should be consulted before allowing anyone or anything to come into touch with your flock.
After interaction with the sick bird or its environment, shower and disinfect your clothing and footwear; you will need to perform these measures each time you come into contact with the sick bird again (s).
The risk of infection for your birds can be reduced by a number of extra measures. It’s in Module 4 that you’ll learn more about creating a biosecurity plan to guard your flock against disease transmission.
Speak with your pet’s doctor.
Symptoms alone may not be sufficient to diagnose a specific disease in a sick bird because many diseases share similar symptoms. In the event that your pet’s symptoms are unidentified, you should consult your veterinarian.
How much does it cost to start up a poultry farm in Nigeria?
To start up a poultry farm in Nigeria, you will have at least 500,000 to 1 million nairas.
How can I start a small poultry farm?
To start poultry farming in Nigeria, you need to choose your area of interest either as an egg distributor or raising birds for others. Learn the skill to raise a bird of your choice then source for funds.
How much do poultry farmers make in Nigeria?
Nigeria’s chicken farming industry was valued at N1. 6 trillion in 2019 by the Governor of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Godwin Emefiele, making it the most commercialized sub-sector of the country’s agricultural sector.
How many bags of feed can 500 layers consume?
For the first month, 500 layer chicks will require 750 kilograms of feed if each one consumes 1.5 kilograms of feed every month. Your chicks’ food intake will increase by about 1.75 kilograms a month over the next month.
How much does it cost to raise 100 chickens?
As a rough estimate, it would cost $6900 each year to keep 100 hens, and you would receive $1500 as a prize for doing so.
How can I become a successful poultry farmer?
To become successful as a poultry farmer, you need to be knowledgeable about birds, common diseases, what to feed your birds, and how to manage your poultry very well
Can a chicken lay 3 eggs in one day?
No, it is not possible, excerpt by chance.
How long do layers lay eggs?
Hens can live up to 8 years in a backyard flock and lay eggs for 3-4 years on average. The number of eggs produced, the size of the eggs and the quality of the shells all diminish over time. Egg production declines after two to three years in most commercial layers.
How long does a baby chicken take to grow?
At 18 weeks of age, a baby chicken is regarded to be “mature.”
Breed-specific differences in how rapidly or slowly an individual chicken develops may also play a role in the timing of this stage of development.
How many eggs do layers produce per day?
By maintaining 12 hens, you can supply your family with eggs. Every day, the hens will lay between nine and ten eggs. You may even be able to establish your own small business in this manner. In order to cover the cost of the hens’ food, you can sell four of the ten eggs.
What is the most common poultry disease?
- Newcastle Disease.
- Avian Influenza.
- Fowl Pox.
Poultry business is a lucrative business anyone can pick up and start, so, if you are thinking of starting one, we have discussed what you need to know range from the types of poultry farming, and how to get started with our east listed 6 steps and all you need to know.
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